Sudan and South Sudan

John Prendergast on CNN International: South Sudan's Anniversary Marks Little to Celebrate

Enough Project's John Prendergast discusses the problems still plaguing South Sudan as the country marks its fourth Independence Day.

Enough Project's John Prendergast discusses the problems still plaguing South Sudan as the country marks its fourth Independence Day with CNN International's Isha Sesay.

 

 

شبكات الدولة العميقة تختطف و تقوض الإقتصاد السوداني

Date: 
Aug 29, 2016

 

الفساد الفاحش المحمي بواسطة الدولة , سوء الإدارة المالية , الموازنة السرية , و محاربة الدولة لمواطنيها, تدفع بتفاقم الأزمة الإقتصادية المزمنة و المعاناة الإنسانية.

29 أغسطس 2016 – الدولة العميقة التي تتألف من المقربين من النظام والمؤسسات التجارية التي تديرها وكالات قطاع الأمن قد استولت بصورة خفية على الإقتصاد الوطني في السودان, كما يكشف ذلك تقريرحديث منشور اليوم بواسطة مشروع كفاية.
تقرير "كعب أكيل - تدهور إقتصاد نظام الخرطوم: تقاطع الحرب , المصلحة و الجشع" للكاتب سليمان بلدو يبين أن الإقتصاد المتدهور و المعاناة الإنسانية الواسعة في السودان هي نتيجة للفساد الفاحش المكرس من قبل الدولة , السياسات الإقتصادية غير المدروسة و الحروب الوحشية المكلفة للدولة ضد مواطنيها.

قال سليمان بلدو مستشار مشروع كفاية و كاتب التقرير , "الأزمة الإقتصادية المتفاقمة في السودان , إلى حد كبير , ذاتية المنشأ. العقوبات الإقتصادية و عزلة السودان الدولية تفاقم المشكلة فقط و لكن لم تخلقها. إتخاذ خطوات جريئة عاجلة أشد ما تكون الحاجة اليها  لوضع حد للحرب الأهلية , إجتثاث الفساد و الحد من الإنفاق الحكومي من شأنها أن تقطع شوطاً طويلاً في تحفيف معاناة الشعب السوداني و إنهاء عزلة البلاد." 

نتائج التقرير تقوض بصورة مباشرة جهود حملة العلاقات العامة و الضغط الممارس من قبل حكومة عمر البشير التي تدعي بأن العقوبات الأمريكية هي السبب الوحيد لأزمات الإقتصاد القومي المزمنة. يعرض التقرير بصورة أبعد إن مستوى الفساد في اعلي قمم المسؤلية وسوء الإدارة قد حولا المال العام بعيداً عن الخدمات و القطاعات المنتجة  ذات الفائدة للشعب.
أضاف بلدو: "يستطيع السودان التغلب على صعوباته الإقتصادية فقط عندما تجعل حكومته تنمية و رفاهية شعبه هي أولويتها القصوى. ليحدث ذلك , على نظام الحكم ان الإنخراط بصورة جادة و إستباقية في الجهود الدبلوماسية  لإيجاد السلام الدائم العادل للبلاد بإشراك المعارضين , جماعات المجتمع المدني , المجموعات المتأثرة بنزاعات السودان العديدة ،  و أصحاب المصلحة الآخرين و كل الجهات الفاعلة ذات النفوذ."

الفرض الحازم للعقوبات على إيران ، وروسيا ودوّل اخري دفع المؤسسات الدولية المالية  الي تجنب المخاطر و التوقف عن التعامل مع العملاء ذوي الخطورة بما في ذلك السودان. تجنب المخاطر هذا أدي الي  عزلة مالية خلقت بدورها  أزمة سيولة نقدية في خزينة الدولة السودانية. قد إعتمد مسئولو النظام و أنصاره على السيولة النقدية للدولة للحفاظ على أسلوب حياتهم البزخة عالية التكلفة و تمويل شبكات المحسوبية. 

يري التقرير أن الضغط المالي على القادة السودانيين يمكن تشديده أو تخفيفه بواسطة صانعو القرار الأمريكي كجزء من إستراتيجية اسلوب الاكراه و الترغيب لدعم صفقة السلام الشامل في السودان التي تقود إلى التحول الديمقراطي.
كما أضاف بلدو: " رغم إن الإتحاد الأفريقي و الأمم المتحدة يقودان جهودا دبلوماسية لحل الأزمات في السودان, لكن تملك الولايات المتحدة نفوذا كبيرا لدفع هذا الضغط الإقليمي و الدولي, مستخدمةً ما لديها من نفوذ بسبب تطبيق  عقوباتها الإقتصادية على السودان."

توصيات التقرير السبعة الرئيسية:
بالنسبة لحكومة السودان , يوصى مشروع كفاية بالآتي:

1.أنهاء النزاع: دعم حل حقيقي شامل و جامع لإنهاء حروب السودان الأهلية وقيادة البلاد نحو التحول الديمقراطي.

2-  زيادة المحاسبة: محاربة الفساد الرسمي  و إتخاذ تدابير الشفافية, و إعطاء المراجع العام المستقل سلطات  النيابة العامة, وتمكين مؤسسات المحاسبة الأخرى مثل غرفة السودان للمظالم العامة (غرفة أمين المظالم) حسب المعايير الدولية الراسخة. إصلاح الهيكلة و التفويض الممنوح لسلطات الآلية الوطنية لمحاربة الفساد المكونة مؤخراُ تماشياً مع المعايير وأفضل الممارسات المعمول بها دولياً. 

3-حماية إستقلال القضاء و الإعلام.
4-  دعم متابعة و إعادة الأموال العامة المسروقة.
بالنسبة للمعارضة السودانية , منظمات المجتمع المدني, الأكاديميين, و خبراء الإصلاح المؤسسي , يوصي مشروع كفاية بما يلي:

5-  التخطيط لتحقيق التكامل و الإصلاح: السعي الحثيث من أجل التنسيق و التكامل بين المبادرات الجارية لغرض تطوير السياسات البديلة لأصلاح القطاع الإقتصادي و القطاعات الحيوية الأخرى , بهدف إستقرار الدولة في حالة الأنتقال إلى الديمقراطية.

6-  بحث و توثيق جميع الأموال و الإصول العامة المنهوبة. إعداد خطط لإسترداد تلك الأصول و محاسبة المسئولين عن تسريبها.
بالنسبة للإتحاد الأفريقي و لجنة الأمم المتحدة الإقتصادية لأقريقيا , يوصى مشروع كفاية بما يلي:

7-  دعم التحقيقات في التمويل غير المشروع: تقديم المساعدة الفنية لجهود منظمات المجتمع المدني لتمكينها من تحديد و تقصي و توثيق التدفقات المالية من السودان , و بشكل خاص تسريب عائدات النفط. ثم تطويرآليات المحاسبة وذلك بدعم الجهود المبذولة لأسترداد تلك الأموالد

الرابط للتقرير الكامل: http://eno.ug/2bi0WcB
لإستفسارات وسائل الإعلام أو طلب المقابلات, الرجاء الإتصال على:
Greg Hittelman , مدير الإتصالات , تلفون: 310 717 0606 +1 , إيميل: gh@enoughproject.org

عن مشروع كفاية:
مشروع كفاية , هو مجموعة مختصة بالسياسات تستهدف منع  الجرائم الوحشية , و تسعى لبناء نفوذ من أجل السلام والعدالة في أفريقيا  بالمساعدة علي سن عقوبات حقيقية ضد مرتكبي جرائم الإبادة الجماعية  و معاونيهم و مرتكبي الفظائع الجماعية الأخرى. و يهدف مشروع كفاية ايضا إلى مواجهة الجماعات المسلحة المنتهكة للحقوق و الأنظمة المعتدية و القاءمة علي نهب الأموال العامة وً  الفساد الفاحش و الإرهاب و الجزائم العابرة للحدود و نهب والإتجار بالموارد المعدنية , وتهريب العاج , والماس , و الموارد الطبيعية الأخرى. يقوم مشروع كفاية بإجراء دراسات ميدانية  في مناطق النزاعات  , ويطور و يدافع عن التوصيات المتعلقة بالسياسات , و يدعم .مشروع كفاية  الحركات الإجتماعية في الإقطار المتضررة , و يسهم في الحشد الجماهيري  للحملات العامة المناصرة لتلك التوصيات لمعرفة المزيد – إنضم إلينا – في الموقع www.enoughproject.org

New Report: Khartoum’s Economic Achilles’ Heel

In a new report released today, Enough Project Advisor Suliman Baldo describes the economic vulnerability of  the Sudanese government, and why it opens a key window that gives the United States leverage to support a transition to peace in the country.  Read More »

South Sudan’s Peace Agreement Faces Considerable Challenges on its First Anniversary

On August 26, 2015, the parties to the conflict in South Sudan signed a peace agreement. However, the first anniversary of the Agreement for the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan finds the pact in a state of inertia as key planks remain unimplemented. Although it was continuously violated by the government and the armed opposition in the past year, the pact still held. The return of the SPLM-IO to Juba and the subsequent formation of the transitional government in April increased hopes that the government and the armed opposition were set on turning a new page.  Read More »

“Deep State” Networks Hijack, Undercut Sudan Economy

Date: 
Aug 29, 2016

 

State-enshrined grand corruption, financial mismanagement, covert budgets, and war on citizenry found to drive chronic economic crisis and human suffering

A “deep state” consisting of regime insiders and commercial enterprises run by agencies in the security sector has covertly hijacked the national economy in Sudan, reveals a new report published today by the Enough Project. 

The report, “Khartoum’s Economic Achilles’ Heel: The Intersection of War, Profit, and Greed” by Suliman Baldo, details how a collapsing economy and widespread human suffering in Sudan is the result of state-enshrined grand corruption, ill-advised economic policies, and expensive brutal wars against its own citizens. 

Suliman Baldo, Enough Project Advisor and report author, said: “Sudan's worsening economic crisis is largely self-inflicted. International sanctions and Sudan's isolation compounded the problem but did not create it. Taking desperately needed bold steps to end the civil war, root out corruption, and reduce government spending would go a long way to easing the suffering of the Sudanese people and ending the country's isolation.” 

The report findings directly undercut recent public relations and lobbying efforts by the government of Omar al-Bashir claiming that U.S. sanctions are the sole cause of the nation’s chronic economic crisis. The report further exposes how high level corruption and mismanagement diverts public money away from services and sectors that would benefit the people.

Baldo added: “Sudan will be able to overcome its economic difficulties only when its government makes the welfare and development of its people its top priority. For that to happen, the regime has to be seriously and proactively engaged in diplomatic efforts for finding a just and lasting peace for the country with the participation and direct involvement of the opposition, civil society groups, communities affected by Sudan’s many conflicts, and all other stakeholders and actors with influence.”

Tighter enforcement of sanctions on Iran, Russia, and other targets has prompted global financial institutions to stop doing business with clients in high risk jurisdictions, including Sudan. This “de-risking” process has led to financial isolation and created a cash crunch for Sudanese state coffers. Regime officials and their supporters have relied on this cash to maintain high-cost lifestyles and fund patronage and security networks.

The report argues that financial pressure on Sudanese leaders can be tightened and eased by U.S. policymakers in strategic ways as part of a system of coercion and incentives to support an inclusive peace deal in Sudan that leads to a transition to democracy. 

Baldo added: “While it is true the African Union and the UN are leading diplomatic efforts to resolve the crisis in Sudan, the US wields considerable influence to advance that regional and international push, using leverage it has from the application of its economic sanctions on Sudan.”

7 key report recommendations:

To the Government of Sudan, the Enough Project recommends the following:

1. End conflict. Facilitate a genuinely comprehensive and inclusive solution to end Sudan’s civil wars, and steer the country to a democratic transition.

2. Increase accountability. Fight official corruption, and introduce transparency measures. Give Sudan’s independent Auditor’s Chamber prosecutorial powers. Empower other accountability institutions, such as Sudan’s Chamber of Public Grievances (ombudsman chamber), according to well-established international standards. Reform the mandate, composition, and powers of the recently-formed National Anti-Corruption Commission in accordance with international standards and best practice.

3. Protect the independence of the judiciary and the media.

4. Support the tracing and return of stolen public funds.

To the Sudanese opposition, civil society, academics, and institutional reform experts, the Enough Project recommends:

5. Plan for integration and reform. Work for better coordination and integration of ongoing initiatives for the development of alternative policies for the reform of the economic sector and other sectors vital for the stability of the state in the event of transition to democracy.

6. Research and document all stolen public funds and assets. Prepare plans for the recovery of these assets and for holding accountable those responsible for their diversion.

To the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the Enough Project recommends:

7. Support illicit finance investigations. Provide technical assistance to civil society efforts to enable them to identify, investigate, and document illicit financial flows from Sudan, in particular from the diversion of oil revenue. Then, enhance accountability by supporting efforts to recover such funds.

Link to the full report: http://eno.ug/2bi0WcB

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact:
Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

Khartoum’s Economic Achilles’ Heel: The intersection of war, profit, and greed

Sudan’s increasingly urgent economic crisis, which has recently grown more acute because of financial isolation related in part to tighter sanctions enforcement for Iran, has become the Sudanese regime’s greatest vulnerability. This economic vulnerability has caused sanctions relief to replace debt relief as the regime’s primary preoccupation, giving the U.S. government powerful leverage to support an inclusive peace deal in Sudan that leads to a transition to democracy. 

UN Security Council Votes ‘Yes’ on Intervention Force for South Sudan

Date: 
Aug 12, 2016

Enough Project experts available for interviews and analysis

The United Nations Security Council has just authorized an intervention force for South Sudan. The mandate of the force would prioritize the protection of civilians and act to bolster the tenuous peace process in the country.

Brian Adeba, Associate Policy Director at the Enough Project, said: This vote should be applauded. Peace and the protection of civilian lives in South Sudan should be the principal elements in the discourse on the intervention force. The intervention force will supplement the regional effort to cement peace and protection of civilians in South Sudan.

John Prendergast, Founding Director of the Enough Project, said: "Beefing up the protection of civilians in high risk areas is a crucial upgrade to the international community's response to the South Sudanese crisis.  However, it is crucial that international leverage be increased for the unhindered deployment of that force, the delivery of life-saving aid, and the implementation of the peace agreement.  The best way to enhance international leverage is to impose targeted sanctions on spoilers and move forward with an arms embargo.  Threats no longer seem to faze those prosecuting the war.  The bark needs to move to a bite."

Adeba added: “The intervention force holds tremendous potential to protect civilians and sustain peace in South Sudan.”

As South Sudan approaches the first year anniversary of the peace deal signed on August 26, 2015 that ended its civil war, the situation continues to be volatile. Sporadic armed conflict, atrocities, and military attacks on civilians continue in the capital and across the country. Hundreds have been killed and thousands have been displaced in the most recent fighting, and in many areas communities and internally displaced people face famine-like conditions.

Experts at the Enough Project are now available for comment, analysis and interviews:

Recent TV interviews:

Recent reports on South Sudan:

Recent op-eds:

Congressional testimony:

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

Would a UN Arms Embargo Work in South Sudan?

A recent article issued by the Small Arms Survey’s Human Security Baseline Assessment looks at a number of factors that the author, Luuk van de Vondervoort, argues would enable an effective arms embargo in South Sudan.   Read More »

The Unheard Voices of South Sudan: How The International Community Can Help Bring Peace

IDPs in Juba. July 2016.

This week, Salva Kiir, the president of South Sudan and the leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), swore in Taban Deng Gai as first vice president, replacing former Vice President Riek Machar. The move was denounced by Machar’s followers, and the Enough Project characterized Kiir’s action as a consolidation of power in violation of the peace agreement signed in August of last year.    Read More »

As South Sudan Faces Dangerous Crossroads, State Institutions Could Hold Hope for Future Peace

Date: 
Jul 27, 2016

 

New report details competitive grand corruption underlying conflict

new report published today by the Enough Project points to an intentional effort by South Sudan’s political elite to undermine state institutions in order to protect their corrupt extraction of national wealth and maintain power at any cost. As South Sudan’s tenuous peace agreement holds, the country faces a tipping point that could lead to a new outbreak of devastating armed conflict largely driven by competition between its leaders over the spoils of power.

The new report, "A Hope from Within? Countering the intentional destruction of governance and transparency in South Sudan," by Enough’s Brian Adeba, offers some hope that existing institutions in the country, properly empowered, could support peace. While making critical recommendations to support transparency and anti-corruption efforts, the report reveals new details of widespread government corruption left unchecked as official investigations are sidelined or simply ignored.

Brian Adeba, report author and Associate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: "Many government institutions, commissions, offices and staff in South Sudan are ready and willing to do their jobs, but are undermined every step of the way, underfunded and disempowered by leaders who have intentionally disintegrated state capacity for governance and transparency."

Drawing on field research, the report shows that the weaknesses of governance institutions in South Sudan stem from deliberate efforts by elite politicians. The report reviews the weaknesses of three of South Sudan’s governance institutions most critical to establishing accountability: the Anti-Corruption Commission, the National Audit Chamber, and the Public Accounts Committee in the National Legislative Assembly. All three institutions face considerable operational challenges that have undercut their effectiveness in implementing their constitutional mandates.

Adeba added: "In the absence of accountability and transparency, South Sudan risks more cycles of chaos, conflict and mass atrocities fueled by corrupt leaders manipulating ethnic divisions and jockeying for the spoils of power. Reforming institutions of governance in South Sudan is imperative if the country is to avoid another war."

Brad Brooks-Rubin, Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: “In the midst of conflict and tragic human suffering, like we have seen far too often in South Sudan’s young history, it can be easy to look past the detailed work and commitment needed to build a transparent and accountable state that can truly function for its people.  As demonstrated in the field work that underlies this report, however, failing to do so can contribute to disastrous results.  Fortunately, the report also shows that South Sudan possesses the necessary legal and organizational infrastructure to enable meaningful change and create a state that can meet the expectations of its people, responsible investors, and the international community.”

Selected report highlights:

  • “Because governance institutions work at the behest of elite politicians, it is in the interest of these politicians to disable these institutions and limit their ability to play their role in oversight, regulation, and providing checks and balances on other parts of the government.” 
  • "In 2015, the [Anti-Corruption Commission] completed a high-profile investigation involving the alleged misappropriation of $12 million earmarked for procurement of military supplies by officials at the Ministry of Defense and Veterans Affairs and the national army, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). The case has been forwarded to the Ministry of Justice but there is little public information available about whether the ministry has taken further action regarding these serious allegations."
  • "Although the audits that the [National Audit Chamber] has produced show gross misappropriation of public funds, an insignificant number of people have been held accountable to date. As one interviewee said, ‘the government is just like a cow that is milked but not fed. All audits die somewhere.’"
  • “Accountability was never built into the governance structure of the violent kleptocratic system that the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) established in the aftermath of the 2005 peace deal that ended the 22-year north-south war. By nature, violent kleptocracies hijack governance institutions for the personal financial benefit of those within the ruling network and for the security of the regime. These kleptocracies use extreme violence, including mass atrocities, to maintain their hold on power. In this regard, South Sudan’s governance institutions were hijacked and the ability of these institutions to implement oversight functions was compromised. Wanton corruption by the political elite accelerated to unprecedented levels and further stymied the government’s ability to deliver services to the populace. In 2012, President Salva Kiir estimated that $4 billion was siphoned from the country’s coffers.”

Overview of report recommendations:

1. Fully fund and staff the agencies responsible for governance for long-term economic benefits

South Sudan’s governance institutions have the potential to counter corruption by promoting economic transparency and accountability. It is critical that the institutions that South Sudan already has in place be able to function properly. They need full budget allocations, sufficient staffing levels, and unobstructed authority to carry out their duties, including enforcement actions.

2. Boost civil society’s role in the public sphere

Governments and multilateral bodies that support good governance should intensify their advocacy to open and preserve political space for civil society in South Sudan. The government of South Sudan should also opt in to the Global Partnership for Social Accountability (GPSA), which is the World Bank’s arm for providing support to civil society. Although assistance goes to civil society organizations, the government must first agree to the GPSA’s framework.

3. Tie external assistance to strict budget oversight

Many donors are reluctant to offer assistance without seeing significant improvements in peace, security, and the way South Sudanese leaders manage public funds. Most agree that it is crucial to ensure that donor funding is not misappropriated. Donors should, therefore, provide support that is subject to “dual-key” provisions similar to those of Liberia’s Governance and Economic Management Assistance Program (GEMAP). GEMAP, a partnership implemented in 2006 to 2010 between the government of Liberia and international partners, was designed to ensure transparency and accountability in Liberia’s government spending, particularly with natural resource revenues.

4. Develop additional mechanisms for donor coordination and evaluation of decision-making using international standards

In addition to donor insistence on the implementation of dual-key budgeting systems, the donor community must develop and adhere to a clear system for coordination on priorities and programs for South Sudan. Donor coordination is critical to ensuring that the government of South Sudan receives consistent messages and donors do not duplicate efforts or work at cross-purposes.

5. Support domestic enforcement and external accountability measures

On the domestic front in South Sudan, donors should support the establishment of a range of institutions and mechanisms spelled out in the August 2015 peace agreement for open government and holding culpable individuals responsible for their actions. Support for the establishment of the Hybrid Court for South Sudan to prosecute atrocity and economic crimes—as provided in the 2015 peace deal—is essential to the foundation for accountability and transparency and can counter impunity. Institutional support to boost the performance of oversight institutions to enhance accountability is equally important.

Where domestic measures fail, the international community should use available tools to hold accountable the actors who are undermining progress. The United States, for instance, should use authorities of the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) to investigate the ways that the proceeds of corruption are laundered out of South Sudan, whether to neighboring countries or beyond. Most financial transactions in this context involve the use of U.S. dollars. When U.S. dollars move through the international financial system, they eventually pass through the United States, giving the U.S. government jurisdiction to take action, particularly when these dollars are believed to be the proceeds of criminal activity.  

Link to the full report: http://eno.ug/2a1W5ij

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT

The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

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