International Institutions

5 Stories You Might Have Missed This Week

A weekly round-up of must-read stories, posted every Friday.  Read More »

The Sudans to Conclude Negotiations While Humanitarian Situation Remains Unresolved

Date: 
Sep 21, 2012

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Contact:

In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Amanda Hsiao, South Sudan Field Researcher, +251 (0) 923249353, ahsiao@enoughproject.org, Skype: ayrhsiao

In Washington, DC: Jennifer Christian, Sudan/South Sudan Policy Analyst, +1 202-604-4518, jchristian@enoughproject.org, Skype: jennchristian

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia -- On September 23, Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir are expected to meet in Addis Ababa to conclude agreements on outstanding issues between their two countries, including oil and financial arrangements, border disputes and demarcation, border security arrangements, and Abyei. 

“A grand bargain across the remaining issues between Sudan and South Sudan exists,” said Amanda Hsiao, Field Researcher. “The question is, will Presidents Kiir and Bashir demonstrate the leadership needed to locate the political compromises necessary for peace between the two countries?” 

Former South African President Thabo Mbeki, lead mediator of the negotiation process and head of the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel, is scheduled to brief the African Union Peace and Security Council on Monday, September 24 on the outcome of the negotiation process and provide recommendations on how to resolve any remaining outstanding issues.

In contrast, negotiations on the conflicts in South Kordofan and Blue Nile have not made enough progress. The government of Sudan continues to prevent the unhindered delivery of independent humanitarian aid to civilian populations in the two states.

“The government of Sudan’s continued denial of international humanitarian access to the two states contravenes a U.N. Security Council resolution, an agreement on aid delivery, and international law,” said Jennifer Christian, Policy Analyst. “Khartoum’s behavior demands immediate action on the part of the U.N. Security Council in the form of targeted sanctions and other actions designed to ensure the immediate delivery of necessary aid to affected populations.”

Who: Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and South Sudanese President Salva Kiir

What: Meeting to conclude agreements on outstanding issues between Sudan and South Sudan

Where: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

When: Sunday, September 23, 2012

Why: The meeting comes one day after the deadline set by the African Union for the conclusion of negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan on all outstanding issues arising from the latter’s declaration of independence in July 2011.

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Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org.     

It’s Not an Either/Or Question

This piece first appeared as part of New York Times "Room for Debate." Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast and others—Daniel Bekele of Human Rights Watch, Michael Fairbanks of The Seven Fund, Girma Fantaye, an Ethiopian journalist, and author Deborah Brautigam—address the question: How should the U.S. relate to regimes that, although authoritarian, have moved toward prosperity, like Paul Kagame's in Rwanda?  Read More »

Girls, not Guns: The Promise of Progress for South Sudan

During the first year of independence for the world’s newest nation, women of South Sudan united to amplify their voices and ensure their rights are guaranteed in the constitution and enforced by the government. These efforts have led to some milestones in the development of women’s rights in South Sudan, but many challenges still remain.  Read More »

Enough 101: Somalia’s New President

This week's post in the series Enough 101 provides a brief background on Somalia’s new president, Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, as well as an overview of the challenges he will face in his new role.  Read More »

Under R2P, International Community Must Deliver Aid in Sudan

Date: 
Sep 13, 2012

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Contact: Tracy Fehr, tfehr@enoughproject.org, +1-202-459-1219

WASHINGTON – For more than a year, the government of Sudan has targeted its own civilian populations and denied humanitarian access into Blue Nile and South Kordofan states, causing a humanitarian crisis comparable to that of Darfur less than a decade ago. It is time for the international community to act under the responsibility to protect, or R2P, doctrine and ensure aid delivery to Sudanese civilians with or without the government’s permission, argues a new Enough Project report.

The U.N. estimates that nearly 700,000 civilians are internally displaced or severely affected by the conflicts in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, and an additional quarter of a million people have fled the two states crossing the border into South Sudan or Ethiopia.

The international community has tried to ensure the delivery of aid into these areas through various diplomatic efforts, but to no avail. Most recently in August, the government of Sudan signed a memorandum of understanding, or MOU, with the “Tripartite Partners”—U.N., African Union, and League of Arab States—providing for the development and implementation of an action plan for humanitarian aid delivery throughout the two states. Over a month after the MOU’s conclusion, there is still no international aid reaching civilians in SPLM-N-controlled areas of South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

"The course of events over the past year makes clear that the international community's diplomatic efforts to negotiate with the government of Sudan for unhindered humanitarian access throughout the two states will not result in the delivery of aid,” said Jennifer Christian, author of the report and Enough Project policy analyst. “Under the responsibility to protect doctrine, the international community now has an obligation to ensure international humanitarian aid reaches civilians throughout South Kordofan and Blue Nile by whatever means necessary. Discussions should begin immediately over a comprehensive plan to deliver international, cross-border humanitarian assistance throughout the two states without the permission of the government of Sudan."

The report argues that under R2P doctrine, the burden to protect individuals within the state of Sudan has shifted to the international community. Because Sudan has failed to respond to diplomatic efforts, the international community may take collective measures under Chapter VII of the U.N. Charter. The Enough Project is not calling for military intervention, but rather for the successful delivery of international humanitarian aid to starving Sudanese civilians.

“The government of Sudan is brazenly denying its own people access to humanitarian aid,” said John Bradshaw, Enough Project Executive Director. “If the responsibility to protect doctrine is to have any meaning, the international community has to step up in a situation like this and ensure the delivery of humanitarian assistance throughout Blue Nile and South Kordofan by whatever means possible.”

Read the full report: “Shifting the Burden: The Responsibility to Protect Doctrine and the Humanitarian Crisis in Sudan.”

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Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org.

 

Shifting the Burden: The Responsibility to Protect Doctrine and the Humanitarian Crisis in Sudan

For over a year, the government of Sudan, led by alleged genocidaire President Omar al-Bashir, has denied international humanitarian aid organizations access to the states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile, in which a coalition of armed opposition groups, known as the Sudan Revolutionary Front, or SRF, has been fighting against government forces.

Blue Nile refugee with his family

Enough Brief: Sudan-South Sudan Final Talks Approach Agreement Deadline

Sudan and South Sudan negotiations resumed Wednesday with meetings in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, with time closing in on a September 22 deadline by which the mediation panel should submit its final report. In this last round of negotiations, the parties hope to resolve outstanding issues from the separation to secure sustained peace between the two countries. In a new Enough brief released today, Amanda Hsiao, the Enough Project’s Juba-based field researcher, outlines the key issues and analyzes where each side stands.  Read More »

International Pressure Key to Comprehensive Agreement Between the Sudans

Date: 
Sep 6, 2012

 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Contact: Tracy Fehr, +1-937-902-9587, tfehr@enoughproject.org  

JUBA, South Sudan – As Sudan and South Sudan enter the final round of negotiations, the international community must pressure both countries to resolve all outstanding issues to secure sustained peace between the Sudans, according to a new Enough Project brief.

During the last round of negotiations, the two parties provisionally agreed to an economic deal that includes the resumption of oil shipments from South Sudan through Sudan. Elements of both parties and the international community could be tempted to move forward with an oil deal and avoid addressing politically challenging issues along Sudan and South Sudan’s border.

A comprehensive agreement on remaining post-secession issues—including the status of Abyei, border disputes and demarcation, security arrangements along the border, and citizenship—is fundamental to ensuring an end to conflict and long-term stability between the two Sudans.

“A unique window of opportunity exists in this final round of negotiations for Juba and Khartoum to agree on processes to address long-simmering sources of tension along the two countries’ shared border,” said Amanda Hsiao, the report’s author and Enough Project field researcher. “Since the two parties now have fewer pieces of leverage to negotiate with, sustained and coordinated international pressure will be critical to push Juba and Khartoum toward a comprehensive deal.”

The brief asserts that countries with leverage in the Sudans should push both parties to, at a minimum, agree on the centerline for a demilitarized border zone; the modalities of a referendum on Abyei, including voter eligibility; and a pro­cess for resolving border disputes. The brief argues that international actors should treat September 22,2012—the date when the facilitating African Union High-Level Implementation Panel will present its final report—as a hard deadline for all outstanding issues to be resolved.

Read the full brief: “Sudan-South Sudan Negotiations: Can They Meet the Deadline?

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Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a “3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org.

 

M23’s Wider Influence: Mobilizing Militias, Stirring Ethnic Conflict

The widespread nature of violence in eastern Congo today is often described as being the result of a security vacuum: The attention of the Congolese army and the U.N. peacekeepers is focused on M23, leaving other parts of the volatile region vulnerable to local armed groups. This is surely part of the story. But there is also reason to believe that these local militias are receiving backing from outside actors.  Read More »

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