International Institutions

Sudan, South Sudan Agree on Oil and Security Arrangements in Partial Deal

Sudan and South Sudan signed a deal today that will resume oil flow and create a demilitarized zone between the two countries. However, a resolution on Abyei and border disputes was not included in the deal.  Read More »

An Activist’s Guide to the SEC’s Final Ruling on Congo’s Conflict Minerals

On August 22, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, voted to adopt conflict minerals regulations that require companies to publicly disclose whether any of the minerals they use originated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or an adjoining country. If so, what steps they are taking to avoid sourcing from armed groups? The decision marked a major victory in the fight to end the trade in conflict minerals from eastern Congo—one that would not have happened without activist pressure on the SEC and the electronics industry. Our new guide for activists to the SEC’s ruling on conflict minerals explains what this vote means for companies, activists, and consumers.  Read More »

Enough Policy Brief: A Proposal for Moving Peace Talks Forward in Eastern Congo

In a new Enough Project policy brief published today, authors Aaron Hall and Sasha Lezhnev urged leaders attending tomorrow’s high-level meeting focused on the conflict in eastern Congo -- reignited with the emergence of the M23 rebellion earlier this year -- to use the U.N. General Assembly forum to launch a “revitalized peace process” with the gravitas to make an impact where current regional efforts are coming up short.  Read More »

Juba, Khartoum Close Gap on Security Arrangements, Divisive on Abyei

Four days into a presidential summit on a list of unresolved issues Juba and Khartoum appear close to a deal on security arrangements, in addition to a provisional financial deal the two sides agreed to in the last round. The two countries remain divided over the issue of Abyei, a contested border territory that was guaranteed a final status referendum under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement.  Read More »

U.N. Meeting Offers Chance to Revitalize Congo Peace Process: Brief

Sep 26, 2012



Contact: Tracy Fehr, 1-202-459-1210,

WASHINGTON -- Following four years of gradual progress toward peace, eastern Congo now stands on the precipice of disaster. The African Union must establish a revitalized peace process between Congo and the Rwanda-backed M23 rebellion to prevent the current conflict from escalating into inter-state war, according to a new Enough Project brief.

Tomorrow, September 27, a meeting at the United Nations between Congolese President Joseph Kabila, Rwandan President Paul Kagame, and other world leaders offers a chance to launch a viable peace process for the region. At that meeting, the U.S. and its allies must convey strong messages to both Congo and Rwanda about a cessation of hostilities, the protection of civilians, and the establishment of a road-map towards a sustainable political solution to the crisis.

"While the U.S. must continue to press Rwanda to end its support to M23, it must also put pressure on Congo to address continued failures of the state to provide basic governance and security,” said Aaron Hall, co-author of the brief and Enough Project associate director of research. “The U.S. must also work with regional partners and the U.N. to create a process to address longstanding grievances between Congo and Rwanda. Military solutions alone will fail.”

Since June, the International Conference on the Great Lakes region has mediated talks between Kabila and Kagame on security issues, largely ignoring the underlying political and economic issues between the two countries. To bring about sustainable peace, the brief calls for a revitalized peace process that takes all of these issues into account, as well as holds perpetrators of war crimes and crimes against humanity accountable.

The brief asserts that the U.S., U.K., France and Belgium can play a key role in ensuring progress toward peace by supporting the process with strong international incentives and disincentives, including sanctions and conditional funding.   

"Eastern Congo stands at the precipice of disaster, but Thursday's meeting at the United Nations offers a chance to reignite a peace process between Congo and Rwanda to resolve their underlying political and economic interests,” said Sasha Lezhnev, Senior Congo Policy Analyst at the Enough Project. “The regional talks should be mediated by a senior African leader, and the Obama administration has a golden opportunity to offer carrots and sticks for the peace process by first putting World Bank general budget support to Rwanda on hold until it agrees to dismantle the M23 rebellion."

Read the full report: “A Diplomatic Gambit: A Proposal for Moving Peace Talks Forward in Eastern Congo.”


Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit

Global Post Op-ed: Ban Ki-moon’s Chance to Ignite Peace in Congo

Ban Ki-moon and Joseph Kabila

As global leaders meet in New York this week at the United Nations, pressing issues from a rising violent anti-American protests in the Middle East to rising sea levels in the arctic will be on the world’s table. But one often unknown and underserved humanitarian disaster is finally getting a look from the international community and from the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, himself.  Read More »

Enough Proposes Draft U.N. Resolution: ‘Holding Sudan Accountable’

In a new publication released today, “Holding Sudan Accountable: A Draft U.N. Security Council Resolution,” Enough Project’s Jennifer Christian calls on the U.N. Security Council to take strong measures against the government of Sudan for its failure to permit international humanitarian aid into the Sudanese states of South Kordofan and Blue Nile.  Read More »

Holding Sudan Accountable: A Draft U.N. Security Council Resolution

On May 2, 2012, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 2046, which called for, among other things, the government of Sudan’s acceptance of the Tripartite Proposal to facilitate the delivery of international humanitarian assistance to South Kordofan and Blue Nile. Today, nearly five months since Resolution 2046’s adoption, the Sudanese government continues to deny international humanitarian aid organizations with access to civilians. In this paper, the Enough Project proposes the following draft resolution that may serve as the basis for future U.N. Security Council action.   

Foreign Policy Op-ed: The Somali Spring

Buried beneath the grisly headlines from Somalia from the last few weeks was some unexpectedly good news: The newly appointed Somali parliament elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud to serve as the first post-transition head of state. This is a seismic event in Somalia -- but not for the reasons many observers presume, writes Enough Project senior fellow Ken Menkhaus for Foreign Policy.  Read More »

Emmanuel Jal Takes the Stage in South Sudan for 'We Want Peace' Concert

“Peace.” The word resonated from the walls of the Independence Hall of Juba on Friday during a concert marking International Peace Day, organized by a group founded by South Sudanese former child soldier and internationally acclaimed musician Emmanuel Jal.  Read More »

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