The Justice and Equality Movement (JEM): The most potent military force in Darfur. Responsible for an attack on the Sudanese capital in 2008, which gained JEM some additional support among Darfuris, but the group’s Islamist past and previous links to the government still spark distrust among many Darfuris.
Liberation and Justice Movement (LJM): A unified rebel group that is only mildly significant because it is comprised largely of individuals who left the more prominent movements. With the exception of the United Resistance Front, or URF, which has limited military strength on the ground, the members of this group lack both popular support and firepower.
Roadmap Group: A unified rebel group that includes the Sudanese Liberation Army – Unity, or SLA-Unity, the most significant remnant of the original SLA, which is made up of the G19 or the 19 former commanders who split from Abdel Wahid after Abuja. SLA-Unity continues to have a significant following in Darfur, particularly in the north, as well as the largest military contingent outside of JEM. The Sudanese Liberation Army-Abdel Wahid Commanders, or SLA-AWC, which is also composed of former Abdel Wahid commanders, is part of this group, as is SLA-Abdel Shafi.
Sudanese Liberation Army-Abdel Wahid (SLA-AW): A very significant force, with tribal links to and support from the largest number of displaced in Darfur. Wahid’s refusal to enter into unified negotiations with other rebels has been of immense frustration to international negotiators and may remain a key factor in the muted response from the international community to the Sudanese army’s bombing of Jebel Marra, an SLA-AW stronghold.
Although Darfur only rarely makes the headlines lately, the reality on the ground continues to be defined by profound insecurity, limited humanitarian access, impunity for perpetrators of violence, and the absence of credible human rights reporting.