Sudan and South Sudan

New Amnesty International Report Accuses Sudan of Using Chemical Weapons in Darfur

Amnesty International’s newly released report “Scorched Earth, Poisoned air,” documents the use of chemical weapons by the Sudanese government in the Jebel Marra region of Darfur.  Read More »

Formation of New Rebel Movement Increases Number of Armed Groups in South Sudan

On the September 27, 2016, a new rebel movement formerly allied to David Yau Yau - and calling itself the Cobra faction - defected from the South Sudanese government. Led by General Khalid Boutros, a former deputy to Yau Yau, the group has declared war against the government.  Read More »

Enough Project’s Suliman Baldo Testifies before UK Parliamentary Group on Sudan

On September 13, Enough Project Senior Advisor Suliman Baldo testified before the UK’s All-Party Parliamentary Group on Sudan and South Sudan. This inquiry, UK-Sudan Relations – Consequences of Engagement, examined changes in UK engagement with the Government of Sudan, as well as “the drivers of these changes and their likely ramifications.”  Read More »

The Sentry Co-founders George Clooney and John Prendergast Join Don Cheadle and Investigators to Release Groundbreaking Report on War Profiteering in South Sudan

Sep 12, 2016


2-year investigation reveals networks fueling one of the world’s deadliest conflict zones implicating president, deposed vice president, international banks, arms dealers, multinational oil and mining companies

Today, The Sentry, an investigative initiative co-founded by George Clooney and John Prendergast, presented a new, groundbreaking report “War Crimes Shouldn’t Pay: Stopping the looting and destruction in South Sudan.” Clooney and Prendergast joined Don Cheadle and lead investigators at the National Press Club in Washington DC to present findings of a two-year investigation into South Sudan’s shadowy war economy and its links to a network of international facilitators, including bankers, arms dealers, and multinational oil and mining companies. The report implicates South Sudan President Salva Kiir and former Vice President Riek Machar, who as rival leaders have been responsible for a civil war that has wreaked havoc on their nation.

This marked the first public presentation of The Sentry’s multi-country investigations into the links between massive corruption, war profiteering, and armed conflict. The Sentry is a collaboration between the Enough Project and Not On Our Watch, with their implementing partner the Center for Advanced Defense Studies.  The Sentry also focuses on Sudan, Somalia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Central African Republic.

The report exposes top officials who have managed to accumulate fortunes profiting from massive corruption, fueling and exploiting a brutal civil war while their nation suffers famine-like conditions and the horrors of armed conflict, including mass rape, the burning of villages, and the use of child soldiers.

The Sentry’s work unveils a new and innovative approach to countering mass atrocities and to promote peace in some of the world’s deadliest conflict zones, utilizing the tools of financial pressure normally reserved for countering terrorism, organized crime, and nuclear proliferation.

Press conference livestream:

Report highlights:

  • South Sudan’s president and the former vice president, their families and inner circles have stashed fortunes that include overseas mansions, luxury cars, and stakes in an array of businesses – major multinational oil and mining companies, banks, casinos, and an airline — and have left a trail of murky transactions, insider deals, and outright fraud.
  • The report details international complicity at every turn — bankers, businessmen, arms dealers, real estate agents, and lawyers who facilitate their heist.
  • The Sentry found evidence of complicity in the looting and destruction of South Sudan on five different continents: Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, and North America.
  • The Sentry has collected images of family members of these top officials jet-setting and partying in 5-star hotels, and documentation of their offshore mansions and properties.
  • Researchers pored through thousands of pages of legal records, corporate filings, financial statements, transaction and shipping documents, and other official correspondence; tracked suspects’ online social media footprints; and utilized satellite imagery to gather and analyze data about their assets and movements. Investigators traveled to multiple locations including Melbourne, Adelaide, Addis Ababa, Kampala, Juba, Cairo and Nairobi, to gather evidence and interview hundreds of experts and eyewitnesses, many of whom spoke under the condition of anonymity.
  • Dossiers are already being turned over to US and international governments and agencies for enforcement action.
  • The report offers recommendations for an innovative new policy approach for preventing atrocities and promoting peace: combining anti-money laundering measures with targeted sanctions focused on the top leaders, accompanied by robust enforcement.

Report excerpts:

  • A VIOLENT CONTEST OVER SPOILS OF POWER: “The key catalyst of South Sudan’s civil war has been competition for the grand prize — control over state assets and the country’s abundant natural resources — between rival kleptocratic networks led by President Kiir and Vice President Machar. The leaders of South Sudan’s warring parties manipulate and exploit ethnic divisions in order to drum up support for a conflict that serves the interests only of the top leaders of these two kleptocratic networks and, ultimately, the international facilitators whose services the networks utilize and on which they rely.”
  • HUMAN SUFFERING: “South Sudan, the world’s newest state, continues to be embroiled in a horrific civil war. Tens of thousands of people have lost their lives, many of them civilians. Mass rape has been used as a weapon of war. Children are routinely recruited as soldiers and sent as cannon fodder into combat. As of July 2016, some 2.3 million people have been displaced by the conflict. A staggering 5.1 million people—almost half the country’s population—require food assistance. Entire towns have been destroyed. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has called South Sudan “one of the most horrendous human rights situations in the world.”

Report recommendations:

This report proposes a new strategy to counter atrocities that will use the tools of financial pressure normally reserved for countering terrorism, organized crime, and nuclear proliferation for two purposes: first, to bring to account those government actors in South Sudan who until now have been able to operate with near impunity because the world imposes no consequences for their behavior; and second, to create significant and until now missing international leverage by altering the cost-benefit analysis of those leaders and shifting their incentives away from violence, atrocities, and corruption and toward peace, human rights, and transparency. The international community should take the following steps to create that accountability and leverage:

  1. Take proactive steps to curb the laundering of the proceeds of corruption in South Sudan –and crack down on any banks that fail to stop such transactions.
  2. Impose smarter sanctions on a wide array of high-impact targets and ensure these sanctions are robustly enforced.
  3. Encourage and support South Sudan’s neighbors to lead in combating the laundering of assets looted from South Sudan and imposing asset freezes on those most responsible for human rights violations and financial misconduct.
  4. Take proactive attempts to prevent de-risking. Directing anti-money laundering pressures against politically exposed persons in South Sudan could cause banks to determine that the risk of doing business with South Sudanese account holders is simply too high when compared with the incentives for maintaining business in the country. The Department of Treasury’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) should issue guidance to the banking community stressing that not every South Sudanese client is high-risk.
  5. Introduce a financial management system that prevents violent kleptocrats from capturing state institutions to facilitate the looting of public resources.

The Sentry brings together an experienced team of investigators, including former employees of the FBI, Treasury Department, other government agencies, intelligence communities, and Congress, as well as contributions from field researchers, country experts, academia and press.

During Monday’s press conference, Clooney, Cheadle, Prendergast, and members of the Sentry team will discuss the findings of this investigation and participate in a question-and-answer session with attending media.

WHO:   The Sentry co-founders George Clooney and John Prendergast, Not on Our Watch co-founder Don Cheadle, report author J.R. Mailey and key Sentry investigators. Interview opportunities with report authors should be requested prior.

FOR MEDIA – PRESS CONFERENCE:   Credentialed media are encouraged toRSVP for the press conference the press conference (include your full name and media outlet) to

FOR MEDIA – PRESS KIT: A press kit, including report graphics, team bios, and video b-roll is available at

FOR MEDIA – INTERVIEW REQUESTS: To request an interview following the press conference with one of the Sentry’s lead investigators, please contact Greg Hittelman

529 14th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20045

DATE/TIME: Monday, September 12, 2016
Media check-in: 9:30 a.m. ET
Press conference 10:00am – 11:00am ET


LIVESTREAM:  For media unable to attend the press conference in person, a livestream of the event of the event will begin at 10:00 am ET at

The Sentry seeks to disrupt and dismantle the networks of military officers, government officials, businessmen, arms dealers, bankers, and other enablers who benefit financially and politically from Africa’s deadliest conflicts. Our investigations follow the money from conflict zones and into global economic centers, using open source data collection, field research, document collection, and state-of-the-art network analysis technology. The Sentry provides information and analysis that engages civil society and media, supports regulatory action and prosecutions, and provides policymakers and the private sector with the information they require to take effective action. Co-founded by George Clooney and John Prendergast, The Sentry is an initiative of the Enough Project and Not On Our Watch (NOOW), with its implementing partner C4ADS. Current countries of focus are South Sudan, Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Somalia, and the Central African Republic.  Learn more at

The Sentry Releases First Investigative Report - War Crimes Shouldn’t Pay: Stopping the Looting and Destruction of South Sudan

Following a two-year investigation into the assets and wealth of top officials in South Sudan’s government and opposition, Enough’s initiative The Sentry has released its first findings in a new report,  providing evidence that highlights the link between this systemic corruption and violent conflict, including the mass atrocities committed during the civil war  Read More »

شبكات الدولة العميقة تختطف و تقوض الإقتصاد السوداني

Aug 29, 2016


الفساد الفاحش المحمي بواسطة الدولة , سوء الإدارة المالية , الموازنة السرية , و محاربة الدولة لمواطنيها, تدفع بتفاقم الأزمة الإقتصادية المزمنة و المعاناة الإنسانية.

29 أغسطس 2016 – الدولة العميقة التي تتألف من المقربين من النظام والمؤسسات التجارية التي تديرها وكالات قطاع الأمن قد استولت بصورة خفية على الإقتصاد الوطني في السودان, كما يكشف ذلك تقريرحديث منشور اليوم بواسطة مشروع كفاية.
تقرير "كعب أكيل - تدهور إقتصاد نظام الخرطوم: تقاطع الحرب , المصلحة و الجشع" للكاتب سليمان بلدو يبين أن الإقتصاد المتدهور و المعاناة الإنسانية الواسعة في السودان هي نتيجة للفساد الفاحش المكرس من قبل الدولة , السياسات الإقتصادية غير المدروسة و الحروب الوحشية المكلفة للدولة ضد مواطنيها.

قال سليمان بلدو مستشار مشروع كفاية و كاتب التقرير , "الأزمة الإقتصادية المتفاقمة في السودان , إلى حد كبير , ذاتية المنشأ. العقوبات الإقتصادية و عزلة السودان الدولية تفاقم المشكلة فقط و لكن لم تخلقها. إتخاذ خطوات جريئة عاجلة أشد ما تكون الحاجة اليها  لوضع حد للحرب الأهلية , إجتثاث الفساد و الحد من الإنفاق الحكومي من شأنها أن تقطع شوطاً طويلاً في تحفيف معاناة الشعب السوداني و إنهاء عزلة البلاد." 

نتائج التقرير تقوض بصورة مباشرة جهود حملة العلاقات العامة و الضغط الممارس من قبل حكومة عمر البشير التي تدعي بأن العقوبات الأمريكية هي السبب الوحيد لأزمات الإقتصاد القومي المزمنة. يعرض التقرير بصورة أبعد إن مستوى الفساد في اعلي قمم المسؤلية وسوء الإدارة قد حولا المال العام بعيداً عن الخدمات و القطاعات المنتجة  ذات الفائدة للشعب.
أضاف بلدو: "يستطيع السودان التغلب على صعوباته الإقتصادية فقط عندما تجعل حكومته تنمية و رفاهية شعبه هي أولويتها القصوى. ليحدث ذلك , على نظام الحكم ان الإنخراط بصورة جادة و إستباقية في الجهود الدبلوماسية  لإيجاد السلام الدائم العادل للبلاد بإشراك المعارضين , جماعات المجتمع المدني , المجموعات المتأثرة بنزاعات السودان العديدة ،  و أصحاب المصلحة الآخرين و كل الجهات الفاعلة ذات النفوذ."

الفرض الحازم للعقوبات على إيران ، وروسيا ودوّل اخري دفع المؤسسات الدولية المالية  الي تجنب المخاطر و التوقف عن التعامل مع العملاء ذوي الخطورة بما في ذلك السودان. تجنب المخاطر هذا أدي الي  عزلة مالية خلقت بدورها  أزمة سيولة نقدية في خزينة الدولة السودانية. قد إعتمد مسئولو النظام و أنصاره على السيولة النقدية للدولة للحفاظ على أسلوب حياتهم البزخة عالية التكلفة و تمويل شبكات المحسوبية. 

يري التقرير أن الضغط المالي على القادة السودانيين يمكن تشديده أو تخفيفه بواسطة صانعو القرار الأمريكي كجزء من إستراتيجية اسلوب الاكراه و الترغيب لدعم صفقة السلام الشامل في السودان التي تقود إلى التحول الديمقراطي.
كما أضاف بلدو: " رغم إن الإتحاد الأفريقي و الأمم المتحدة يقودان جهودا دبلوماسية لحل الأزمات في السودان, لكن تملك الولايات المتحدة نفوذا كبيرا لدفع هذا الضغط الإقليمي و الدولي, مستخدمةً ما لديها من نفوذ بسبب تطبيق  عقوباتها الإقتصادية على السودان."

توصيات التقرير السبعة الرئيسية:
بالنسبة لحكومة السودان , يوصى مشروع كفاية بالآتي:

1.أنهاء النزاع: دعم حل حقيقي شامل و جامع لإنهاء حروب السودان الأهلية وقيادة البلاد نحو التحول الديمقراطي.

2-  زيادة المحاسبة: محاربة الفساد الرسمي  و إتخاذ تدابير الشفافية, و إعطاء المراجع العام المستقل سلطات  النيابة العامة, وتمكين مؤسسات المحاسبة الأخرى مثل غرفة السودان للمظالم العامة (غرفة أمين المظالم) حسب المعايير الدولية الراسخة. إصلاح الهيكلة و التفويض الممنوح لسلطات الآلية الوطنية لمحاربة الفساد المكونة مؤخراُ تماشياً مع المعايير وأفضل الممارسات المعمول بها دولياً. 

3-حماية إستقلال القضاء و الإعلام.
4-  دعم متابعة و إعادة الأموال العامة المسروقة.
بالنسبة للمعارضة السودانية , منظمات المجتمع المدني, الأكاديميين, و خبراء الإصلاح المؤسسي , يوصي مشروع كفاية بما يلي:

5-  التخطيط لتحقيق التكامل و الإصلاح: السعي الحثيث من أجل التنسيق و التكامل بين المبادرات الجارية لغرض تطوير السياسات البديلة لأصلاح القطاع الإقتصادي و القطاعات الحيوية الأخرى , بهدف إستقرار الدولة في حالة الأنتقال إلى الديمقراطية.

6-  بحث و توثيق جميع الأموال و الإصول العامة المنهوبة. إعداد خطط لإسترداد تلك الأصول و محاسبة المسئولين عن تسريبها.
بالنسبة للإتحاد الأفريقي و لجنة الأمم المتحدة الإقتصادية لأقريقيا , يوصى مشروع كفاية بما يلي:

7-  دعم التحقيقات في التمويل غير المشروع: تقديم المساعدة الفنية لجهود منظمات المجتمع المدني لتمكينها من تحديد و تقصي و توثيق التدفقات المالية من السودان , و بشكل خاص تسريب عائدات النفط. ثم تطويرآليات المحاسبة وذلك بدعم الجهود المبذولة لأسترداد تلك الأموالد

الرابط للتقرير الكامل:
لإستفسارات وسائل الإعلام أو طلب المقابلات, الرجاء الإتصال على:
Greg Hittelman , مدير الإتصالات , تلفون: 310 717 0606 +1 , إيميل:

عن مشروع كفاية:
مشروع كفاية , هو مجموعة مختصة بالسياسات تستهدف منع  الجرائم الوحشية , و تسعى لبناء نفوذ من أجل السلام والعدالة في أفريقيا  بالمساعدة علي سن عقوبات حقيقية ضد مرتكبي جرائم الإبادة الجماعية  و معاونيهم و مرتكبي الفظائع الجماعية الأخرى. و يهدف مشروع كفاية ايضا إلى مواجهة الجماعات المسلحة المنتهكة للحقوق و الأنظمة المعتدية و القاءمة علي نهب الأموال العامة وً  الفساد الفاحش و الإرهاب و الجزائم العابرة للحدود و نهب والإتجار بالموارد المعدنية , وتهريب العاج , والماس , و الموارد الطبيعية الأخرى. يقوم مشروع كفاية بإجراء دراسات ميدانية  في مناطق النزاعات  , ويطور و يدافع عن التوصيات المتعلقة بالسياسات , و يدعم .مشروع كفاية  الحركات الإجتماعية في الإقطار المتضررة , و يسهم في الحشد الجماهيري  للحملات العامة المناصرة لتلك التوصيات لمعرفة المزيد – إنضم إلينا – في الموقع

New Report: Khartoum’s Economic Achilles’ Heel

In a new report released today, Enough Project Advisor Suliman Baldo describes the economic vulnerability of  the Sudanese government, and why it opens a key window that gives the United States leverage to support a transition to peace in the country.  Read More »

South Sudan’s Peace Agreement Faces Considerable Challenges on its First Anniversary

On August 26, 2015, the parties to the conflict in South Sudan signed a peace agreement. However, the first anniversary of the Agreement for the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan finds the pact in a state of inertia as key planks remain unimplemented. Although it was continuously violated by the government and the armed opposition in the past year, the pact still held. The return of the SPLM-IO to Juba and the subsequent formation of the transitional government in April increased hopes that the government and the armed opposition were set on turning a new page.  Read More »

“Deep State” Networks Hijack, Undercut Sudan Economy

Aug 29, 2016


State-enshrined grand corruption, financial mismanagement, covert budgets, and war on citizenry found to drive chronic economic crisis and human suffering

A “deep state” consisting of regime insiders and commercial enterprises run by agencies in the security sector has covertly hijacked the national economy in Sudan, reveals a new report published today by the Enough Project. 

The report, “Khartoum’s Economic Achilles’ Heel: The Intersection of War, Profit, and Greed” by Suliman Baldo, details how a collapsing economy and widespread human suffering in Sudan is the result of state-enshrined grand corruption, ill-advised economic policies, and expensive brutal wars against its own citizens. 

Suliman Baldo, Enough Project Advisor and report author, said: “Sudan's worsening economic crisis is largely self-inflicted. International sanctions and Sudan's isolation compounded the problem but did not create it. Taking desperately needed bold steps to end the civil war, root out corruption, and reduce government spending would go a long way to easing the suffering of the Sudanese people and ending the country's isolation.” 

The report findings directly undercut recent public relations and lobbying efforts by the government of Omar al-Bashir claiming that U.S. sanctions are the sole cause of the nation’s chronic economic crisis. The report further exposes how high level corruption and mismanagement diverts public money away from services and sectors that would benefit the people.

Baldo added: “Sudan will be able to overcome its economic difficulties only when its government makes the welfare and development of its people its top priority. For that to happen, the regime has to be seriously and proactively engaged in diplomatic efforts for finding a just and lasting peace for the country with the participation and direct involvement of the opposition, civil society groups, communities affected by Sudan’s many conflicts, and all other stakeholders and actors with influence.”

Tighter enforcement of sanctions on Iran, Russia, and other targets has prompted global financial institutions to stop doing business with clients in high risk jurisdictions, including Sudan. This “de-risking” process has led to financial isolation and created a cash crunch for Sudanese state coffers. Regime officials and their supporters have relied on this cash to maintain high-cost lifestyles and fund patronage and security networks.

The report argues that financial pressure on Sudanese leaders can be tightened and eased by U.S. policymakers in strategic ways as part of a system of coercion and incentives to support an inclusive peace deal in Sudan that leads to a transition to democracy. 

Baldo added: “While it is true the African Union and the UN are leading diplomatic efforts to resolve the crisis in Sudan, the US wields considerable influence to advance that regional and international push, using leverage it has from the application of its economic sanctions on Sudan.”

7 key report recommendations:

To the Government of Sudan, the Enough Project recommends the following:

1. End conflict. Facilitate a genuinely comprehensive and inclusive solution to end Sudan’s civil wars, and steer the country to a democratic transition.

2. Increase accountability. Fight official corruption, and introduce transparency measures. Give Sudan’s independent Auditor’s Chamber prosecutorial powers. Empower other accountability institutions, such as Sudan’s Chamber of Public Grievances (ombudsman chamber), according to well-established international standards. Reform the mandate, composition, and powers of the recently-formed National Anti-Corruption Commission in accordance with international standards and best practice.

3. Protect the independence of the judiciary and the media.

4. Support the tracing and return of stolen public funds.

To the Sudanese opposition, civil society, academics, and institutional reform experts, the Enough Project recommends:

5. Plan for integration and reform. Work for better coordination and integration of ongoing initiatives for the development of alternative policies for the reform of the economic sector and other sectors vital for the stability of the state in the event of transition to democracy.

6. Research and document all stolen public funds and assets. Prepare plans for the recovery of these assets and for holding accountable those responsible for their diversion.

To the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the Enough Project recommends:

7. Support illicit finance investigations. Provide technical assistance to civil society efforts to enable them to identify, investigate, and document illicit financial flows from Sudan, in particular from the diversion of oil revenue. Then, enhance accountability by supporting efforts to recover such funds.

Link to the full report:

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact:
Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717

The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at

Khartoum’s Economic Achilles’ Heel: The intersection of war, profit, and greed

Sudan’s increasingly urgent economic crisis, which has recently grown more acute because of financial isolation related in part to tighter sanctions enforcement for Iran, has become the Sudanese regime’s greatest vulnerability. This economic vulnerability has caused sanctions relief to replace debt relief as the regime’s primary preoccupation, giving the U.S. government powerful leverage to support an inclusive peace deal in Sudan that leads to a transition to democracy. 

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