Sudan and South Sudan

Sudan Government Forces Employ Barrel Bombs, Murder, Rape, and Plunder as Military Offensive Continues in Central Darfur

Widespread violence continues throughout Central Darfur, as a government military offensive entered its sixth day. The military offensive began on January 15, when Sudan Armed Forces (SAF), Rapid Support Forces (RSF), and other government-supported militias attacked the stronghold of the Sudan Liberation Movement–Abdul Wahid al-Nur (SLM–AW) in Jebel Marra.   Read More »

Quiet Violence: New Report Shows How Govt Plans to Dismantle IDP Camps Will Further Destabilize Darfur

A new report by Sudan Democracy First Group (SDFG) details how the Sudanese government’s insistence on dismantling IDP camps in Darfur only increases the risk of violence and further displacement for Darfuri citizens. According to SDFG, this plan will not contribute to peace and stability in Darfur, but instead will create “a space for manipulation of the political context and for the commission of further crimes against civilians in Darfur.”  Read More »

Sudan Tribune Op-ed: Flour Power: Bread Crisis, a Cash Crunch, and Sudan’s Shrinking Private Sector

As economists and analysts keep their eyes on Sudan’s growing hard currency shortage and the falling value of the Sudanese pound against the U.S. dollar, many Sudanese consumers have been watching the price and availability of bread in local bakeries and the outcome of a dispute between a major flour supplier and the Sudanese government.  Read More »

Enough Project Founding Director, John Prendergast, Testifies in South Sudan Hearing

On December 10, 2015, Enough Project Founding Director, John Prendergast, testified before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, assembling for a session on “Independent South Sudan: A Failure of Leadership.” Panel experts additionally included Donald Booth, Special Envoy to Sudan and South Sudan; Bob Leavitt, Deputy Assistant Administrator in USAID’s Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian Assistance; Princeton Lyman, Senior Advisor to the President at the US Institute of Peace and Former Special Envoy to Sudan and South Sudan; and Adotei Akwei, Managing Director of Government Relations at Amnesty International USA.  Read More »

New Report - "Deadly Enterprise: Dismantling South Sudan's War Economy and Countering Potential Spoilers"

Deadly Enterprise

On the two year anniversary of the start of South Sudan's brutal conflict, some limited progress has been made on implementing the peace agreement signed in August. But unless the war economy is dismantled and potential spoilers effectively countered, South Sudan will remain on the brink of a full-scale return to civil war. Read our latest report on the policy tools and interventions available to U.S. and international policymakers to counter the elite interests that pose the most significant threat to peace in South Sudan.   Read More »

New Report Exposes South Sudan’s War Machine, Offers Steps to Target Financial Interests and Counter Potential Spoilers

Dec 15, 2015

Tenuous Peace Deal at Risk as Youngest Nation Marks 2-Year Anniversary of Conflict Outbreak

Today, on the two-year anniversary of the start of South Sudan’s civil war, a new report by the Enough Project exposes the political and financial interests that continue to pose the most significant threat to peace. DEADLY ENTERPRISE: Dismantling South Sudan's War Economy and Countering Potential Spoilers, argues that networks of political and business elites have profited from the war must be effectively targeted and dismantled in order to save South Sudan’s imperiled peace deal.

“Deadly Enterprise,” by Enough Project policy analyst Justine Fleischner, suggests a number of policy tools and interventions to strengthen financial pressure and support accountability, and transparency efforts key to ending impunity for economic crimes.

Justine Fleischner, report author and Enough Project Policy Analyst based in East Africa, said: “The losses for South Sudan’s people have been too devastating to simply allow a return to the governing status quo. If South Sudan’s leaders fail to undertake the necessary political and economic reforms laid out in the peace agreement, it is hard to imagine how there will ever be real stability. South Sudan’s leaders owe it to their own citizens to finally deliver on the promises made at independence.”

The war, sparked in December 2013, has cost countless lives, displaced hundreds of thousands from their homes, and has been characterized by widespread human rights atrocities documented by the independent African Union Commission of Inquiry. The peace agreement provides a starting point for bringing the parties back together in Juba, but so long as hardliner interests remain intact, the country risks a return to full-scale civil war.

John Prendergast, Founding Director of the Enough Project, said: “How does anyone think the status quo of corruption and conflict will change in South Sudan without creating real consequences and breaking the cycle of impunity? The international community must deploy whatever tools it has at its disposal to ensure stolen assets are returned and economic crimes prosecuted. Regional and global asset freezes and travel bans should target those individuals that pursue their own political or economic gain at the expense of the South Sudanese people.”

Report recommendations include global asset recovery efforts, investigations by the U.S. Department of Justice-led Kleptocracy Asset Recovery Initiative, steps to ensure space for civil society to hold their own leaders to account, and tools to combat black market currency trading and potential money-laundering activity.

The in-depth report is based on extensive research and interviews conducted between July and November 2015in Juba, Bentiu, and Malakal, South Sudan; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and Nairobi, Kenya. Interviewees included government and opposition officials, government and rebel commanders, low-level fighters on both sides, civilians displaced by the conflict, civil society leaders, academics, economists, geologists, U.N. officials, and international experts on specific sectors of the war economy.

Selected report revelations:

  • Officials with access to the hard currency brought in as oil revenue are in some cases able to leverage the difference between the official and black market exchange rates to turn huge profits on the dollar. At the time of publication, the official exchange rate was 2.9 SSP to the U.S. dollar and the black market rate was 17 to 18 SSP to the dollar, giving a 586 to 620 percent return on the dollar. 
  • Without a transparent system in place for managing oil revenues and a single oil account, it is difficult to track the money that comes in as oil revenue. In addition, those officials with access to the hard currency brought in as oil revenue are in some cases able to leverage the difference between the official and black market exchange rates to turn huge profits on the dollar. At the time of publication, the official exchange rate was 2.9 SSP to the U.S. dollar and the black market rate was 17 to 18 SSP to the dollar, giving a 586 to 620 percent return on the dollar.
  • Some sources have estimated that the government currently receives around $60 million a month in oil revenues, although the actual total oil income is unknown... Opaque financial arrangements between the oil companies and traders and the government of South Sudan further obscure the use and transfer of oil funds.

Selected report recommendations: 

  • Potential spoilers, including politically and financially exposed individuals at the highest level, should be the primary target of asset investigations and financial audits to curtail the damage they are able to inflict on the implementation of the peace agreement.
  • Opaque business deals and financial transactions should be scrutinized and carefully investigated. These include transactions involving well-known war profiteers with long-standing ties to the opposition and government leadership. The U.S. should also investigate deals involving firms, accounts, and individuals based in the United States. All business transactions, concessions, and bidding processes must meet the minimum requirements laid out in South Sudan’s own laws. Ensuring war profiteers do not cash in on the destruction and loss of life they helped sustain should be a primary concern of JMEC, the United States, and donors during the transitional period.
  • Levying and implementing sanctions that effectively target the South Sudanese actors who most threaten peace and security requires attention to sanctions enforcement at the regional level. To prevent potential South Sudanese spoilers from seeking state sponsors in the region, the United States and other international partners must maintain diplomatic pressure on regional states, including Kenya, where significant South Sudanese assets are held.

Link to full report:

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact:
Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717

The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at

Daily Beast Op-ed: From FIFA to Sudan, Let’s Make the World Unsafe for Kleptocracy

The U.S. Department of Justice has gone after the soccer federation and the government of Sudan with many of the same tools. It needs to keep ratcheting up the pressure.  Read More »

Deadly Enterprise: Dismantling South Sudan's War Economy and Countering Potential Spoilers

Political Economy of African Wars Series

“Deadly Enterprise” is the third in a series of in-depth, field research-driven reports on the dynamics of profit and power fueling war in the Horn, East and Central Africa. Violent kleptocracies dominate the political landscape of this region, leading to protracted conflicts marked by the commission of mass atrocities by state and non-state actors. Enough's Political Economy of African Wars series will focus on the key players in these conflicts, their motivations, how they benefit from the evolving war economies, and what policies might be most effective in changing the calculations of those orchestrating the violence–including both incentives and pressures for peace.

Deadly Enterprise

Testimony of John Prendergast - Independent South Sudan: A Failure of Leadership

Testimony of John Prendergast, Enough Project Founding Director, before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee's hearing on “Independent South Sudan: A Failure of Leadership,” given on December 10, 2015.

Enough Forum Release - Kleptocracy in Khartoum

On December 2, 2015, the Enough Project published an Enough Forum piece, “Kleptocracy in Khartoum: Self-Enrichment by the National Islamic Front/National Congress Party,” written by Eric Reeves. This piece analyses the mechanisms that the National Islamic Front/National Congress Party (NIF/NCP) uses to maintain power and secure wealth, including manipulating the oil market, illicit land sales and expropriations, systemic bureaucratic corruption, financial mismanagement, and state-sponsored violence.  Read More »

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