Press Releases

Rights Groups Statement on the Sudans on the Release of the State Department’s Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012

Date: 
Apr 22, 2013

Enough Project and Humanity United Press Release 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org, +1-202-386-1618

Today, Humanity United, along with Act for Sudan, American Jewish World Service, The Enough Project and United to End Genocide, released a statement on the release of the State Department’s Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2012. The rights groups commended the Department on efforts to document human rights abuses in the world and called for its focus on ongoing atrocities in Sudan and South Sudan. 

 

Statement on Sudan:

On April 19, 2013, the U.S. Department of State released its annual Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 2012.  We commend the Department on its continuing efforts to document ongoing human rights abuses around the world, and in particular for its focus on the increasingly desperate situation in Sudan.

We, the undersigned organizations, want to express our own continuing and growing concern about the grave human rights abuses perpetrated by the government of Sudan. The people of Sudan have consistently faced a failure of governance, repeated and continuing severe humanitarian crises, and indiscriminate attacks against civilians that have resulted in the displacement of millions, uncounted deaths from violence, and emergency levels of food insecurity.

The past year was no different.  In 2012 the Government of Sudan has continued to commit mass atrocities and human rights abuses including:

  • Continued indiscriminate attacks on the people of the Nuba Mountains, South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Darfur, including aerial bombing of non-military targets, other indiscriminate violence and rape. 
  • Restricted humanitarian access in Darfur, Nuba Mountains, South Kordofan, Blue Nile and Eastern Sudan, and non-implementation of agreements providing for such access.
  • Extrajudicial killings, torture and arbitrary arrest of opposition party members, members of civil society, including members of youth movements. 
  • Continued censorship and restrictions on free press including closure of newspapers and suspension of journalists.
  • Continued impunity for security forces and others who caused human rights abuses and failure to either extradite or prosecute individuals indicted by the International Criminal Court.

We strongly condemn these abuses and urge the United States and the international community to take immediate action to pressure the Government of Sudan to stop these mass atrocities and grave abuses, resolve the conflicts that it has provoked, allow unimpeded international humanitarian access throughout the country, and end the suppression of lawful protests so people can enjoy freedoms guaranteed by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

These atrocities and abuses stem from the many conflicts in Sudan, and point to the need for a comprehensive approach to all of Sudan’s conflict.  In addition, given the scale of the atrocities perpetrated by the regime, international donors should not provide significant assistance or debt-relief until real and verifiable steps towards peace and democratic transformation are taken.  The United States should also work with like-minded countries and the African Union to overcome the differences that are leading to inaction in the UN Security Council and move towards addressing these critical issues immediately.

 

Statement on South Sudan:

Statement on South Sudan: 
On April 19, 2013, the Department of State released its annual Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 2012.  We commend the Department on its continuing efforts to document ongoing human rights abuses around the world.  The report included for the first time a review of an entire year in the life of the world’s newest nation, the Republic of South Sudan.

We, the undersigned organizations, want to express our concern about the human rights situation in South Sudan.  According to the 2012 report, elements of the Government of South Sudan have engaged in human rights violations or failed to bring perpetrators to justice, including:

  • Extrajudicial killings, rape, torture and other violence by security forces during the Jonglei disarmament operation, in other areas suffering intercommunal conflict and in other situations. 
  • Arbitrary detention of independent journalists and perceived opponents of the government by security forces.
  • Military detention of opposition party members and figures accused of rebel activities without charges
  • Failure to promote accountability for extrajudicial killings and other human rights abuses by investigating or funding investigation of, including insufficient response to  intercommunal violence in Jonglei, the shooting of peaceful protesters in Wau by security forces, the murder of an independent journalist, and other cases of violence against individuals perceived as opponents of the government.

These abuses were compounded by the expulsion without warning of a senior member of the UNMISS mission responsible for human rights.  

We believe this report is an opportunity for the Government of South Sudan to address these abuses, both through investigation and by ensuring such abuses do not occur in the future, as well as carrying out the action plan it has signed with the UN, acceding to all relevant human rights treaties, and moving forward with the planned national reconciliation process.  We urge the Government of South Sudan to rededicate itself to these efforts.

We believe the United States and the international community should continue to urge the Government of South Sudan to address these violations immediately and to assist in efforts, in partnership with the Government of South Sudan, to increase training for South Sudan’s military and security forces in human rights, civilian protection and accountability.  The U.S. government and the international community should also support strengthening existing accountability mechanisms within the Government of South Sudan, including efforts to combat impunity of the security forces, and to support an independent and transparent South Sudan National Human Rights Commission.  The United States should also ensure full funding for its contribution to UNMISS.

 

The Enough Project is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, Enough focuses on the crises in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough conducts intensive field research, develops practical policies to address these crises, and shares sensible tools to empower citizens and groups working for change. To learn more about Enough, go to www.enoughproject.org.

 

Africa: Enough Project Launches Senior Fellows Program

Date: 
Apr 3, 2013

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org, +1-202-386-1618

WASHINGTON, DC — The Enough Project – an international organization dedicated to ending genocide and crimes against humanity – launched its non-resident senior fellows program, which features a unique and diverse group of 26 distinguished policy experts, scholars, front line activists, and celebrity upstanders.

The fellows will collaborate with the Enough Project on a variety of projects and products regarding human rights and conflict resolution in the Sudans, DR Congo, Somalia, and areas affected by the Lord's Resistance Army.

Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast said:

"Policy discussions can become stale and predictable at times in Washington. The Enough Project wanted to put together an unconventional group of individuals with wildly diverse attributes to bring fresh perspectives to our efforts to end mass atrocities and support peace initiatives. The Enough Project fellows will help to influence the discourse and shape the debate on policies concerning some of the most important human rights issues in the world today."

Enough Project Executive Director John C. Bradshaw said:

"The Enough Project looks forward to working with this impressive array of experts toward the shared objective of ending genocide and crimes against humanity. The Enough Project fellows will provide strategic advice, policy recommendations, and analysis on a full range of issues and we look forward to collaborating with this unique and talented group of individuals."

Enough Project senior fellows include:

  • Bonnie Abaunza, Former director of Artists for Amnesty program at Amnesty International, currently runs Hans Zimmer's Special Projects and Philanthropy division
  • Sister Pauline Acayo, Head of Catholic Relief Services' Gulu, Uganda Office
  • Taisier Ali, Sudanese expert, Visiting Professor at the University of Toronto
  • Nicole Ball, Senior Fellow at the Center for International Policy
  • Immaculee Birhaheka, Congolese activist, Founder and Executive Director of Promotion and Support of Women's Initiatives
  • Susan Braden, Former Policy Advisor at the U.S. State Department's Office of Global Women's Issues
  • Mia Farrow, Actress, activist, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador
  • Melanie Cohen Greenberg, President and CEO of the Alliance for Peacebuilding
  • Ambassador Howard Jeter, Career diplomat, former U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria
  • Douglas Johnson, Sudan scholar
  • Ashley Judd, Actress, humanitarian
  • Ambassador Stephen Lewis, Canada's former Ambassador to the U.N., former U.N. Secretary-General's Special Envoy for HIV/AIDS in Africa, and current Co-Director of AIDS-Free World
  • Ken Menkhaus, Somalia expert, Political Science Professor at Davidson College
  • Colonel Rick Orth, Retired U.S. Army Colonel, Business Lead for International Diplomacy and Defense Services
  • Ambassador Pierre Prosper, Former U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues
  • Sarah Cleto Rial, Program Director at My Sister's Keeper, Boston
  • Governor Bill Richardson, Former New Mexico Governor and U.N. Ambassador
  • Sheri Rosenberg, Assistant Clinical Professor of Law, Director of Human Rights and Genocide Clinic & Program in Holocaust and Human Rights Studies at Cardozo School of Law
  • Peter Rosenblum, International Law and Human Rights Professor, Bard College
  • Hawa Abdallah Mohammed Salih, Darfuri activist
  • Ambassador David Scheffer, Director of the Center for International Human Rights at Northwestern Law School, former U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues
  • Eric Schwartz, Dean of Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota, former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Population, Refugees and Migration
  • Ambassador Nancy Soderberg, Foreign policy expert and former U.S.  Alternate Representative to the U.N.
  • Stephen Stedman, Professor of Political Science at Stanford University, former U.S. Assistant Secretary General and Special Advisor to the Secretary General, U.N.
  • Margot Wallström, Chairman of Lund University, former U.N. Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict

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The Enough Project is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, Enough focuses on the crises in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough conducts intensive field research, develops practical policies to address these crises, and shares sensible tools to empower citizens and groups working for change. To learn more about Enough, go to www.enoughproject.org.

Rights Groups Release Legal Analysis of Evidence of War Crimes, Crimes Against Humanity in Sudan

Date: 
Apr 3, 2013

Enough Project and Satellite Sentinel Project Press Release

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org, +1-202-386-1618

WASHINGTON – A new legal analysis by the Enough Project and its Satellite Sentinel Project, or SSP, finds compelling evidence that since June 2011, the government of Sudan has committed war crimes, crimes against humanity, and torture in Sudan’s South Kordofan and Blue Nile States.

Two years of eyewitness reports, photos, videos, and satellite imagery -- analyzed by the DigitalGlobe Analytics Center and informed by the Enough Project’s sources on the ground, field research, and legal analysis -- present a strong dossier of evidence for referral to the International Criminal Court and to the United Nations. 

Enough Project Executive Director John C. Bradshaw said:

“The evidence of atrocity crimes that we have compiled is extensive and needs to be reviewed by the UN. SSP has documented the deliberate burning of 292 square miles (756 km²) of farms, orchards, and grasslands used for grazing cattle, and the deliberate destruction of 26 civilian villages in South Kordofan state and 16 villages in Blue Nile state. These actions appear to represent widespread and systematic government activities. Establishment of a U.N. commission of inquiry and possibly further investigations by the U.S. government and other international actors is necessary to uncover the full extent of the Sudanese government’s crimes.”

Ambassador David Scheffer, an Enough Project Senior Fellow, said:

“The weight of this information – eyewitness reports, photos, videos, and open-source documentation, corroborated by satellite imagery and analysis – demonstrates that the government of Sudan and its agents should be thoroughly investigated, immediately, for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and torture in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. The way forward lies in this report's recommendations for the creation of a U.N. Commission of Inquiry, national initiatives, and ultimately, a U.N. Security Council referral to the International Criminal Court.”

Satellite imagery included in this report cites specific examples of apparent crimes, including:

  • The deliberate burning and looting of at least 80 civilian structures, including a church, a mosque, and a grinding mill, in Um Bartumbu village, South Kordofan, in November 2011;
  •  The deliberate burning of 33 civilian structures in ‘Amara village, Blue Nile, in November 2011;
  • The deliberate destruction of civilian structures in Toroge village, South Kordofan, sometime between November 2011 and January 2012;
  •  The indiscriminate aerial bombing of civilian populations near the village of Angarto, South Kordofan, in March 2012;
  • The deliberate burning and looting of civilian structures, including a school compound, in the village of Gardud al Badry, South Kordofan, in May 2012 and the subsequent indiscriminate bombardment of the village in July 2012;
  •  The indiscriminate bombardment, razing, and looting of El Moreib village, South Kordofan, in August 2012;
  • The deliberate burning of 13 villages and 31 square miles of fields and forests to the southwest of the town of al Abassiya, South Kordofan, in November 2012;
  •  The deliberate burning of at least 26 villages and 54 square miles of fields and grasslands in three areas of South Kordofan state in November 2012.

The report concludes:

"The acts discussed in this report are likely only an outline of the realities on the ground in South Kordofan and Blue Nile, and DigitalGlobe satellites continue to monitor the situation alongside citizen journalists operating in the two areas. The international community must do more to investigate the war crimes, crimes against humanity, and torture being perpetrated by Sudanese government forces against their own people. If implemented quickly, a commission of inquiry and the involvement of the International Criminal Court prosecutor could serve as a substantial deterrent force against future violence."

Read the report, Architects of Atrocity: The Sudanese Government’s War Crimes, Crimes against Humanity, and Torture in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States - http://www.satsentinel.org/sites/default/files/Architects_of_Atrocity.pdf

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The Satellite Sentinel Project, or SSP, a partnership between the Enough Project and DigitalGlobe, conducts monitoring of the border between Sudan and South Sudan to assess the human security situation, identify potential threats to civilians, and detect, deter and document war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Enough Project provides field research, policy context, and communications strategy. DigitalGlobe provides imagery from its constellation of satellites and geospatial analysis from the DigitalGlobe Analysis Center. SSP is funded primarily by Not On Our Watch. To learn more about Enough, go to www.satsentinel.org.

 

The Enough Project is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, Enough focuses on the crises in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough conducts intensive field research, develops practical policies to address these crises, and shares sensible tools to empower citizens and groups working for change. To learn more about Enough, go to www.enoughproject.org.

Fix the Broken Approach to Peace Between the Sudans: Enough Project

Date: 
Mar 28, 2013

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: Thursday, March 28, 2013

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org , +1-202-386-1618

Fix the Broken Approach to Peace Between the Sudans: Enough Project

WASHINGTON – The international community should not be lulled into a false sense of security because of the incremental steps Khartoum has recently taken in its bilateral relationship with South Sudan, argues a new Enough Project paper. These types of small steps forward after months of delay have been Khartoum’s standard operating procedure for years. 

The UN has announced that a joint monitoring mission visited two hot spots, Kiir Adem and Tishwin, in the buffer zone between the two countries. The mission confirmed that both sides' armed forces had withdrawn from those locations. Although this is significant, the Enough Project's new report, The Broken Approach to Peace Between the Sudans, puts these developments into a broader context by explaining why such incremental progress contains the seeds of even more conflict. The paper spotlights the dangerous cycle of incremental agreements, whose implementation is delayed until yet another incremental step is hailed as a breakthrough.

Enough Project Senior Advisor Omer Ismail said:

The international community is celebrating the incremental steps forward in March 2013 as a breakthrough. Efforts to secure peace between the Sudans are trapped in a cycle where the international community applauds incremental progress while tolerating dangerous delays. Continued reluctance to put a stop to Khartoum's bad faith tactics undermines efforts to secure a durable peace. When combined with the ineffectiveness of the African Union's mediation efforts and the perverse incentives produced by internal political dynamics within the Sudans, tolerance of Bashir's intransigence perpetuates conflict. We need to hold both Sudans to all of their September 2012 commitments.

The paper offers three recommendations for a more effective peace process. First, the Enough Project stresses the needs to leverage pressure on the two Sudans to move them towards durable and enforced agreements.  Second, it suggests shifting the focus away from high-stakes summits towards technical discussions since real negotiations will require stronger channels of bilateral communication between the Sudans. Finally, the paper argues that the U.S. government needs to strengthen Sudanese opposition and civil society to help create the space necessary to shift internal political pressures towards peace.

Enough Project Research Associate Akshaya Kumar said: 

We keep allowing Khartoum to move the goalposts and redefine success. Real progress towards a durable peace needs a new approach. Effectively leveraging international pressure on both parties and shifting the focus away from high stakes summits will help. Since a lack of political will within the Sudans is the root cause of much of the trouble, support for opposition efforts to widen the political space will be essential.

 

Read the report, The Broken Approach to Peace Between the Sudans:  http://www.enoughproject.org/files/BrokenApproachtoPeaceSudans.pdf

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Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org

 

The Enough Project on the Surrender of Congolese Warlord Bosco 'The Terminator' Ntaganda

Date: 
Mar 18, 2013

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: March 18, 2013

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org,+1-202-386-1618  

GOMA, DR CONGO, AND WASHINGTON, DC – The U.S. government has confirmed that Bosco "The Terminator" Ntaganda, a Congolese warlord wanted by the International Criminal Court for war crimes, has entered the U.S. embassy in Kigali, Rwanda, to surrender.
 
State Department Spokesperson Victoria Nuland stated:
 
"I can confirm that Bosco Ntaganda, ICC indictee and the leader of one of the factions of the M23 rebel group and the subject of an International Criminal Court arrest warrant, walked into the U.S. Embassy in Kigali this morning.  He specifically asked to be transferred to the ICC in The Hague."
 
She also said, "We are working to facilitate his request to be transferred to the Hague.  We strongly support the ICC and their investigation on the atrocities committed in the DRC."
 
Enough Project Field Researcher Fidel Bafilemba, based in Goma, DR Congo, said: 
 
"Bosco Ntaganda would have considered all his options before deciding to surrender to the US embassy. He may have felt that his best chance for survival was to surrender to people he believes can ensure his safety. Now that Bosco is in custody, justice can be done for the Congolese people."
 
Enough Project Associate Director of Research Aaron Hall said:
 
"Ntaganda's surrender is a significant moment for accountability and reconciliation in Congo and Rwanda. He must be delivered to The Hague to face the charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity pending against him, especially for rape, sexual slavery and the forcible recruitment of child soldiers. Only immediate arrest and transfer to The Hague will give assurance to eastern Congo's communities that justice will be done."  
 
Enough Project Senior Policy Analyst Sasha Lezhnev said:  
 
"Bosco Ntaganda is not called The Terminator for nothing. The US should immediately hand him over to the International Criminal Court for trial. This would send serious signals to current and future warlords who continue to perpetrate atrocities in eastern Congo. The ICC should also investigate and indict M23 and FDLR officers most responsible for war crimes and crimes against humanity."
 
Ntaganda lived for years in a comfortable villa in Goma, rubbing elbows with humanitarian workers, Congolese security officials, and in plain view of United Nations peacekeeping mission. Despite his war criminal status, he has remained able to consolidate power and move freely throughout the region with total impunity while amassing a fortune from exploitation of the region's illicit minerals trade according to an Enough Project fact sheet that sheds light on the former general.
 
Ntaganda, a Congolese Tutsi with links to the government of Rwanda, fought for years with various rebel groups in both Rwanda and Congo before taking over the Rwandan-backed rebel group the CNDP in 2009. At that point, Ntaganda's forces were integrated into the Congolese army in a still opaque peace deal between Rwanda and Congo. Since then, he has continued a campaign of corruption, murder, rape, extortion and intimidation, under the umbrella of the Congolese state security apparatus.
 
Enough Project Field Researcher Timo Mueller said:
 
"Bosco's decision to turn himself over is indicative of a profound crisis within M23. Over the recent weeks, the group has been consumed by merciless infighting. With the Terminator in custody, the International Community has a prime opportunity to increase its leverage to dismantle a group that wreaks havoc over eastern Congo."
 
"Ntaganda has been called both a war criminal and a lynchpin to regional stability," according to the Enough Project fact sheet. "Yet as a member and leader of several armed groups, he has left a bloody trail across the eastern Congo."
 
Read the Enough Project fact sheet (PDF), "Who is Bosco Ntaganda: Lynchpin to Security or International War Criminal?" LINK: http://www.enoughproject.org/files/BoscoNtaganda.pdf
 
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The Enough Project is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, Enough focuses on the crises in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough conducts intensive field research, develops practical policies to address these crises, and shares sensible tools to empower citizens and groups working for change. To learn more about Enough, go to www.enoughproject.org

Congo Peace Framework Incomplete without Follow-on Negotiations, US Envoy

Date: 
Feb 22, 2013

Enough Project Press Briefing 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org, +1-202-386-1618

Washington, DC, and Goma, DR Congo -- The “Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Region” to be signed on February 24 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia will only succeed if it is followed up by a robust peace process led by a capable United Nations mediator and strong backing from the United States. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon will preside over the signing by Congo and neighboring countries.      

Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast said:

“If not accompanied by the swift appointment of a U.N. envoy and the initiation of a focused peace process between Congo, Rwanda and Uganda led by that U.N. envoy, this Framework agreement will end up having no impact on ending the violence in eastern Congo.” 

The Framework lays a foundation for two main elements: regional negotiations over key economic and security issues and processes leading to real institutional reform within Congo, in part through what should be an inclusive and impartially mediated Congolese national dialogue. 

Enough Project Senior Policy Analyst Sasha Lezhnev said:

“President Obama’s second term offers a major opportunity to pursue peace in eastern Congo, the world’s deadliest war in 50 years. The administration can take three steps toward a new peace strategy. First, the U.S. should urge the U.N. to appoint a senior envoy with extensive negotiating experience to act as mediator. Second, the U.S. could work with the U.N. envoy to build a peace process to operationalize the commitments made in the Framework.  And finally, President Obama should appoint a senior U.S. envoy to support the U.N.-led peace process.”

Enough Project Associate Director of Research Aaron Hall said:

“Now is an opportune moment for peace, despite several repeated cycles of violence. The status quo is no longer acceptable, as the international community has finally acted against Rwanda’s alleged support to armed groups contributing to the destabilization of Congo and against Congo’s lack of transparency in the mining and exploitation of its natural resources. The conflict minerals trade is finally less profitable for armed groups targeting civilians because of legislative and corporate reforms.”

If the U.S. and U.N. envoys proactively engage, a peace process would allow Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to finally address their underlying interests that have fomented conflict and give Congolese civil society a voice at the table to discuss critical internal reforms. The process should also not be a place to extend immunity from prosecution for those who have committed war crimes and mass atrocities. Accountability should be ensured throughout, particularly as it relates to bringing the leadership of M23, including Bosco Ntaganda, to justice, as well as other perpetrators of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

The U.N. Framework establishes several critical commitments that must be addressed in regional talks in order to achieve success.  It will be incumbent upon the U.N. envoy to operationalize the implementation of the Framework’s commitments. 

The Framework’s language regarding economic integration should be operationalized through regional negotiations to establish a series of agreements around infrastructure and conflict-free investment priorities. Security measures should also be negotiated to address cross-border threats such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, or FDLR, and spoiler elements of the M23 rebel group. 

More specifically, violent contestation over the control of the illicit trade in natural resources remains a principal driver of conflict. Already, the profits from the illegal trade in minerals have decreased as a result of market reforms such as the Dodd-Frank legislation on conflict minerals, which has caused the price of the illicitly smuggled minerals tin, tantalum, and tungsten to be one-third the price of conflict-free minerals.  Negotiating agreements that will allow for the expansion of the existing conflict-free trade will benefit all regional states.  Agreements would be most beneficial around the following:  tariff reform, mineral certification monitoring, investment code revision, the formation of specialized economic zones, and transparent concession-bidding processes to incentivize long-term, conflict-free investment in natural resources.

One of the starting points could be finalizing an agreement on the development of the potentially lucrative methane gas reserves along the Congo-Rwanda border. Such an agreement could lower electricity costs for the two countries, which are approximately double those of other regional states. 

Several substantive issues raised in the Framework specific to Congo should be discussed in the institutional reform process. These include decentralization, security sector reform, mining code reform, and local reconciliation efforts. Though not mentioned in the Framework, electoral reform should also be a centerpiece of institutional reform.   

Because Congolese President Joseph Kabila faces an internal legitimacy crisis, it will be important to closely involve Congolese civil society and political parties in these reform processes, including in the holding of an impartially mediated national dialogue.  Those actors should have a prominent voice at the table.

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Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org.

44 Leading Congolese and International NGOs Welcome Peace, Security, and Cooperation Framework but Call for Further Action To Make Peace a Reality

Date: 
Feb 24, 2013

Joint Press Release - Version française ci-dessous

Groups say agreement is not enough and outline concrete steps that need to be taken

Reiterate call for UN, US and EU to appoint Special Envoys and greater regional involvement

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Goma/Washington/Kinshasa -- A group of prominent Congolese and international NGOs today called on countries in the Great Lakes region, along with their international partners, to ensure that the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework Agreement signed in Addis Ababa is given the political backing necessary to bring an end to war in the eastern Congo.

In a published policy response, the groups welcomed the Framework Agreement as an opportunity for a new kind of decisive engagement in a conflict that has persisted for two decades and ravaged the lives of millions of Congolese.

However, they also suggest that the Agreement will be hollow without specific additional measures, including the appointment of a high-profile UN Special Envoy with the power to mediate on both a domestic and regional level; the inclusion of Congolese civil society and Kinshasa’s main bilateral and multilateral donor partners in the proposed national oversight mechanism; and the tying of donor aid to clear and agreed benchmarks and genuine collaboration between government, donors, and civil society.

The groups also called for the creation of a donor fund to support projects aimed at deepening regional economic integration to emphasize the benefits of regional stability; UN-mediated negotiations with armed groups that avoid the impunity characteristic of past deals; and substantial donor engagement to promote demobilization of rebel soldiers and regional economic integration.

“We need a new approach, a peace process based on the principles of justice,” says Raphael Wakenge, Coordinator of the Congolese Initiative for Justice and Peace (ICJP).  “Past peace deals have often closed their eyes toward impunity, allowing war criminals to be integrated into the army, police and security services. This has undermined the legitimacy of the peace process and the reputation of the security services, including the judiciary.”

The Framework Agreement is based on two main points: bringing an end to foreign backing of Congolese rebellion movements, and fostering the comprehensive reform of state institutions such as the national army, police and judicial sectors. The groups today called on the facilitators and the eleven state signatories of the Framework to make sure that there are clear benchmarks in order to carry out these goals. They further suggested that donors should tie their aid to progress in the peace process. 

“The Framework Agreement is a strong promise to the Congolese people, but past peace processes have stumbled due to a lack of transparency, weak international engagement and the absence of a comprehensive process,” says Federico Borello, Great Lakes Director for Humanity United. “This time, it is imperative to tackle once and for all the Congo’s root problems of impunity, regional interference, and state weakness. Without them, our best chance for peace will fail.”

In addition, the groups also called on the international community to show steadfast commitment that goes beyond the technocratic approach of recent years. In addition to calling for a UN Special Envoy, the groups called on the United States and the European Union to name special envoys to support the process, and on the African Union, the International Conference on the Great Lakes (ICGLR) and the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) to continue providing support to the process. They also called for a donor conference to commit the resources necessary to promote cross-border economic collaboration and deep-rooted reform of Congolese institutions.

“There has not been a solid peace process in the Congo since 2006, despite the escalation of violence since then,” says Jason Stearns, Usalama Project director for the Rift Valley Institute. “The Framework Agreement provides hope, but it will require substantial political and financial capital to overcome entrenched interests.”

The groups releasing the policy paper today included:

Action Aid, Action des Chrétiens pour l'Abolition de la Torture (ACAT), Action Humanitaire et de Développement Intégral (AHDI), Action pour la Paix et la Concorde (APC), Africa Faith and Justice Network, Association Africaine de Défense des Droits de l'Homme (ASADHO), Association pour le Développement des Initiatives Paysannes (ASSODIP asbl), Atma Foundation, Bureau d'Etude et d'Accompagnement des Relations Internationales en RDC (BEARIC), Centre des Etudes et de Formation Populaire pour les Droits de l'Homme CEFOP/DH, Centre pour la Paix et les Droits de l'Homme- Peace and Human Rights Center (CPDH – PHRC), Christian Aid, Collectif des Organisations des Droits Humains et de la Démocratie au Congo (CDHD), Comité des Observateurs des Droits de l'Homme (CODHO), Conciliation Resources, CordAid, Danish Refugee Council, Dynamique Synergie des Femmes, Enough Project, Eurac, Fonds pour les Femmes Congolaises (FFC), Forum de la Femme Ménagère (FORFEM), Groupe Justice et Libération, Humanity United, IFDP, International Refugee Rights Initiative, Invisible Children, Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Jesuit Refugee Service, Jewish World Watch, Justice Plus, Ligue des Electeurs (L.E), Ligue pour la Cohabitation Pacifique et de Prévention des Conflits (LCPC), MDF, Norwegian Refugee Council, Réseau pour la Réforme du Secteur de Sécurité et de Justice (RRSSJ), Resolve, Société Civile du Territoire de Nyiragongo et le point focal du COJESKI Nyiragongo, Solidarité Féminine pour la Paix et le Développement Intégral (Sofepadi), Solidarité pour la Promotion sociale et la Paix (SOPROP), The Global Centre for Responsibility to Protect, Union des Jeunes Congolais pour la Paix et le Developpement Intégral (UJCPDI), Voix des Sans Voix (VSV), Youth Program for the Development of Africa (YPDA)

A copy of the groups’ recommendations can be found at – http://humanityunited.org/drcf/A_Comprehensive_Approach_FINAL_v5.pdf

For more information in English, please contact:

Nina Blackwell | Humanity United, nblackwell@humanityunited.org, +1-917-584-4314

Jonathan Hutson | Enough Project, jhutson@enoughproject.org
    

Pour de plus amples renseignements,  veuillez contacter:

Jason Stearns | Rift Valley Institute, English | Français | Swahili, jasonkstearns@yahoo.com, +254 787899568

 

~~~

44 ONG CONGOLAISES ET INTERNATIONALES DE PREMIER PLAN SALUENT L’ACCORD-CADRE POUR LA PAIX, LA SÉCURITÉ ET LA COOPÉRATION MAIS APPELLENT À DES ACTIONS COMPLÉMENTAIRES POUR QUE LA PAIX DEVIENNE RÉALITÉ

Les groupes considèrent que l’accord n’est pas suffisant et proposent des mesures concrètes à prendre

Ils réitèrent leur demande à l’ONU, aux États-Unis et à l’UE de nommer des Envoyés spéciaux et d’accroître l’implication régionale

(Goma/Washington/Kinshasa, le 24 février 2013)

Un groupe d'ONG congolaises et internationales bien connues a appelé aujourd'hui les pays de la région des Grands Lacs, ainsi que leurs partenaires internationaux, à garantir que l'accord-cadre pour la paix, la sécurité et la coopération signé à Addis Abeba recevra l'appui politique nécessaire pour mettre un terme à la guerre dans l'est de la RDC.

Dans un document d’orientation publié ce jour les groupes ont fait part de leur accueil favorable à l'accord-cadre comme une occasion d’instaurer un nouveau type d'engagement décisif dans un conflit qui perdure depuis deux décennies et a ravagé les vies de millions de Congolais.

Cependant, ils suggèrent également que l’accord sera vain sans des mesures spécifiques supplémentaires, notamment la nomination d’un ancien chef d’État en qualité d’Envoyé spécial des Nations Unies habilité à servir de médiateur au niveau national et régional ; l’intégration de la société civile congolaise et des principaux partenaires donateurs bilatéraux et multilatéraux de Kinshasa dans le mécanisme de surveillance national ; l’introduction d’une politique de conditionnalité basée sur des critères clairs et convenus et sur une collaboration véritable entre le gouvernement, les donateurs et la société civile.

Les groupes exigent également la création d’un fonds par la communauté internationale pour soutenir des projets visant à renforcer l’intégration économique régionale pour mettre l’accent sur les avantages de la stabilité régionale, l’introduction de mesures positives que les pays voisins doivent adopter pour démontrer leur engagement en faveur de la fin du conflit, des négociations réalistes avec les groupes armés pour éviter l’impunité judiciaire qui a caractérisé les accords passés, et un engagement significatif des donateurs pour favoriser la démobilisation des soldats rebelles et l’intégration économique régionale.

« Nous avons besoin d’une approche nouvelle, d’un processus de paix basé sur les principes de justice », déclare Raphael Wakenge, coordinateur de l’Initiative congolaise pour la justice et la paix (ICJP). « Les accords de paix précédents ont souvent fermé les yeux sur l’impunité, permettant aux criminels de guerre d’être intégrés dans les services de l’armée, la police et la sécurité. Cela a compromis la légitimité du processus de paix et la réputation des services de sécurité, y compris du système judiciaire. »

L’accord-cadre est basé sur deux points principaux : mettre fin au soutien étranger aux mouvements de rébellion congolaise et favoriser la réforme globale des institutions étatiques telles que les secteurs de l’armée nationale, la police et la justice. Les groupes ont appelé aujourd’hui les facilitateurs et les onze États signataires de l’accord-cadre à s’assurer de l’existence de critères clairs afin d’atteindre ces objectifs. Ils suggèrent, de plus, aux donateurs de subordonner leur aide à la progression dans le processus de paix.

« L’accord-cadre est une promesse forte faite au peuple congolais, mais les processus de paix antérieurs ont échoué en raison du manque de transparence, du faible engagement international et de l’absence de processus global », explique Federico Borello, directeur pour la région des Grands Lacs chez Humanity United. « Cette fois-ci, il est impératif de s’attaquer une bonne fois pour toutes aux problèmes profonds du Congo que sont l’impunité, l’interférence régionale et la faiblesse de l’État. Sans cela, nous passerons à côté de notre meilleure chance de paix. »

De plus, les groupes ont exhorté la communauté internationale à faire preuve d’un soutien constant allant au-delà de l’approche technocratique des dernières années. Outre la demande d’un Envoyé spécial des Nations Unies, les groupes ont appelé les États-Unis et l’Union européenne à nommer des Envoyés spéciaux pour soutenir le processus et ont demandé à l’Union africaine, la Conférence internationale sur la région des Grands Lacs (CIRGL) et la Communauté de développement de l’Afrique australe (SADC) de continuer d’apporter leur soutien au processus. Ils ont aussi préconisé l’organisation d’une conférence de donateurs pour engager les ressources nécessaires afin de promouvoir la collaboration économique transfrontalière et la réforme en profondeur des institutions congolaises.

« Il n’y a pas eu de processus de paix solide au Congo depuis 2006, malgré l’escalade de la violence depuis lors », précise Jason Stearns, directeur du projet Usalama pour le Rift Valley Institute. « L’accord-cadre apporte de l’espoir, mais il exige un capital politique et financier considérable pour surmonter les intérêts bien enracinés. »

Les groupes ayant publié le document d’orientation aujourd’hui incluent :

Action Aid, Action des Chrétiens pour l'Abolition de la Torture (ACAT), Action Humanitaire et de Développement Intégral (AHDI), Action pour la Paix et la Concorde (APC), Africa Faith and Justice Network, Association Africaine de Défense des Droits de l'Homme (ASADHO), Association pour le Développement des Initiatives Paysannes (ASSODIP asbl), Atma Foundation, Bureau d'Etude et d'Accompagnement des Relations Internationales en RDC (BEARIC), Centre des Etudes et de Formation Populaire pour les Droits de l'Homme CEFOP/DH, Centre pour la Paix et les Droits de l'Homme- Peace and Human Rights Center (CPDH – PHRC), Christian Aid, Collectif des Organisations des Droits Humains et de la Démocratie au Congo (CDHD), Comité des Observateurs des Droits de l'Homme (CODHO), Conciliation Resources, CordAid, Danish Refugee Council, Dynamique Synergie des Femmes, Enough Project, Eurac, Fonds pour les Femmes Congolaises (FFC), Forum de la Femme Ménagère (FORFEM), Groupe Justice et Libération, Humanity United, IFDP, International Refugee Rights Initiative, Invisible Children, Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Jesuit Refugee Service, Jewish World Watch, Justice Plus, Ligue des Electeurs (L.E), Ligue pour la Cohabitation Pacifique et de Prévention des Conflits (LCPC), MDF, Norwegian Refugee Council, Réseau pour la Réforme du Secteur de Sécurité et de Justice (RRSSJ), Resolve, Société Civile du Territoire de Nyiragongo et le point focal du COJESKI Nyiragongo, Solidarité Féminine pour la Paix et le Développement Intégral (Sofepadi), Solidarité pour la Promotion sociale et la Paix (SOPROP), The Global Centre for Responsibility to Protect, Union des Jeunes Congolais pour la Paix et le Developpement Intégral (UJCPDI), Voix des sans Voix (VSV), Youth Program for the Development of Africa (YPDA)

Un exemplaire des recommandations des groupes est disponible à l’adresse – http://humanityunited.org/drcf/A_Comprehensive_Approach_FINAL_v5.pdf

Congo Peace Framework Incomplete without Follow-on Negotiations, US Envoy

Date: 
Feb 22, 2012

Enough Project Press Briefing 

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: February 22, 2013

Contact: Jonathan Hutson, jhutson@enoughproject.org, +1-202-386-1618

Washington, DC, and Goma, DR Congo -- The “Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework for the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Region” to be signed on February 24 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia will only succeed if it is followed up by a robust peace process led by a capable United Nations mediator and strong backing from the United States. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon will preside over the signing by Congo and neighboring countries.      

Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast said:

“If not accompanied by the swift appointment of a U.N. envoy and the initiation of a focused peace process between Congo, Rwanda and Uganda led by that U.N. envoy, this Framework agreement will end up having no impact on ending the violence in eastern Congo.” 

The Framework lays a foundation for two main elements: regional negotiations over key economic and security issues and processes leading to real institutional reform within Congo, in part through what should be an inclusive and impartially mediated Congolese national dialogue. 

Enough Project Senior Policy Analyst Sasha Lezhnev said:

“President Obama’s second term offers a major opportunity to pursue peace in eastern Congo, the world’s deadliest war in 50 years. The administration can take three steps toward a new peace strategy. First, the U.S. should urge the U.N. to appoint a senior envoy with extensive negotiating experience to act as mediator. Second, the U.S. could work with the U.N. envoy to build a peace process to operationalize the commitments made in the Framework.  And finally, President Obama should appoint a senior U.S. envoy to support the U.N.-led peace process.”

Enough Project Associate Director of Research Aaron Hall said:

“Now is an opportune moment for peace, despite several repeated cycles of violence. The status quo is no longer acceptable, as the international community has finally acted against Rwanda’s alleged support to armed groups contributing to the destabilization of Congo and against Congo’s lack of transparency in the mining and exploitation of its natural resources. The conflict minerals trade is finally less profitable for armed groups targeting civilians because of legislative and corporate reforms.”

If the U.S. and U.N. envoys proactively engage, a peace process would allow Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda to finally address their underlying interests that have fomented conflict and give Congolese civil society a voice at the table to discuss critical internal reforms. The process should also not be a place to extend immunity from prosecution for those who have committed war crimes and mass atrocities. Accountability should be ensured throughout, particularly as it relates to bringing the leadership of M23, including Bosco Ntaganda, to justice, as well as other perpetrators of war crimes and crimes against humanity.

The U.N. Framework establishes several critical commitments that must be addressed in regional talks in order to achieve success.  It will be incumbent upon the U.N. envoy to operationalize the implementation of the Framework’s commitments. 

The Framework’s language regarding economic integration should be operationalized through regional negotiations to establish a series of agreements around infrastructure and conflict-free investment priorities. Security measures should also be negotiated to address cross-border threats such as the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, or FDLR, and spoiler elements of the M23 rebel group. 

More specifically, violent contestation over the control of the illicit trade in natural resources remains a principal driver of conflict. Already, the profits from the illegal trade in minerals have decreased as a result of market reforms such as the Dodd-Frank legislation on conflict minerals, which has caused the price of the illicitly smuggled minerals tin, tantalum, and tungsten to be one-third the price of conflict-free minerals.  Negotiating agreements that will allow for the expansion of the existing conflict-free trade will benefit all regional states.  Agreements would be most beneficial around the following:  tariff reform, mineral certification monitoring, investment code revision, the formation of specialized economic zones, and transparent concession-bidding processes to incentivize long-term, conflict-free investment in natural resources.

One of the starting points could be finalizing an agreement on the development of the potentially lucrative methane gas reserves along the Congo-Rwanda border. Such an agreement could lower electricity costs for the two countries, which are approximately double those of other regional states. 

Several substantive issues raised in the Framework specific to Congo should be discussed in the institutional reform process. These include decentralization, security sector reform, mining code reform, and local reconciliation efforts. Though not mentioned in the Framework, electoral reform should also be a centerpiece of institutional reform.   

Because Congolese President Joseph Kabila faces an internal legitimacy crisis, it will be important to closely involve Congolese civil society and political parties in these reform processes, including in the holding of an impartially mediated national dialogue.  Those actors should have a prominent voice at the table.

#

Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org.

U.S. and U.N. Must Apply Coordinated Leverage to Ensure Successful Congo Peace Process

Date: 
Feb 12, 2013

UNDER EMBARGO UNTIL: Thursday, February 14, 2013 at 12:01 a.m. Eastern

Contact: Tracy Fehr, tfehr@enoughproject.org, +1-202-459-1219

WASHINGTON, DC – The U.S. and U.N. must appoint senior-level envoys to lead the international community in applying incentives and deterrents necessary to bring all regional stakeholders to the table, and ensure they reach a final agreement addressing long-term drivers of conflict in eastern Congo, argues a new Enough Project paper.

The paper contends that the U.S. and U.N. should use their diplomatic and economic leverage to persuade regional stakeholders, including the governments of Rwanda and Uganda, to constructively participate in the peace process. It suggests that the U.S. apply coercive measures such as the threat of sanctions on Rwandan and Ugandan officials aiding the M23, as well as supporting the continued delay and potential cancellation of World Bank funds to Rwanda.

Enough Project Executive Director John C. Bradshaw said:

“The international community must use a carefully calibrated combination of carrots and sticks to get key regional actors to the negotiating table.  The U.S. can help lead this process by appointing a presidential envoy who could lead the international community in garnering the political will needed to apply a balanced leverage package.  A durable and long-term solution will require concessions from all stakeholders.”

The paper outlines specific economic and diplomatic tools that the U.S. and U.N. could use to get each of the essential actors—Rwanda, Congo, Uganda, M23, and local leaders in eastern Congo—to the table.  The paper specifies, however, that M23 inclusion must be accompanied by coercive preconditions.

Enough Project Associate Director of Research and co-author of the paper Aaron Hall said:

“The Congo peace process must be inclusive of civil society stakeholders to ensure that a final agreement is reached that addresses the region’s chronic drivers of conflict—poor governance and inadequate political representation.  A combination of increased commitment by local, regional, and international actors to reach a long-term solution is imperative to ending the deadly cycle of violence in eastern Congo.”

This is the final paper in an Enough Project’s three-part series about the process, substance, and leverage necessary to create a path toward a viable peace in eastern Congo and the wider region.

Read the full paper: “Coordinated International Leverage: The Missing Element from Congo’s Peace Process

Read the other two papers in the series: “‘What Is Not Said Is What Divides:’ Critical Issues for a Peace Process to End the Deadly Congo War” and “A Broadened Peace Process Is Needed in Congo

#

The Enough Project is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, Enough focuses on the crises in Sudan, South Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough conducts intensive field research, develops practical policies to address these crises, and shares sensible tools to empower citizens and groups working for change. To learn more about Enough, go to www.enoughproject.org.

New Valentine’s Day Campaign Asks Jewelers to Help End Conflict Gold Trade

Date: 
Feb 8, 2013

 

EMBARGOED UNTIL: Friday, February 8, 2012 at 12:01 a.m. Eastern

Contact: Tracy Fehr, tfehr@enoughproject.org, +1-202-459-1219

GOMA, DR CONGO and WASHINGTON, DC – This Valentine’s Day, the Enough Project is launching a new campaign and video report documenting the trade in conflict gold from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Jewelry companies, the world’s largest consumers of gold, have an opportunity to help stop the deadly trade through supply chain action.

Enough Project Co-founder John Prendergast, who is featured in the video, said:

“Gold has emerged as the most lucrative conflict mineral, because it is easy to smuggle small quantities for large profits. Approximately $600 million in gold is smuggled out of Congo each year. Jewelry companies have a golden opportunity to be part of the solution to curb this growing trade by sourcing conflict-free gold from Congo, just as electronics companies have done for other minerals in Congo.”

Growing consumer demand for conflict-free products and the Dodd-Frank legislation on conflict minerals have helped reduce armed groups’ profits in the conflict minerals of tin, tungsten, and tantalum by approximately 65 percent. To fill this gap, some armed groups in eastern Congo have turned to the fourth conflict mineral—gold. The armed groups use poorly paid gold miners, nearly 40 percent of whom are children, working under harsh and dangerous conditions.

The Enough Project video, “Conflict Gold 101,” maps out the supply chain of conflict gold from eastern Congo mines controlled by armed groups to the gold bars and jewelry bought and sold at banks and retailers around the world.

The six main steps of the conflict gold trade laid out in the video and an accompanying infographic are:

1. Mines operated by warlords in eastern Congo;

2. Smugglers in Congo working with armed groups; 

3. Regional smugglers in Uganda, Burundi, and Tanzania; 

4. Refiners in Dubai; 

5. Banks in Switzerland and other banking centers; and

6. Jewelers in the U.S., India, and China. 

Enough Project Senior Policy Analyst Sasha Lezhnev said:

“Consumers need to know what’s going on with gold— it is funding warlords such as one known as ‘The Terminator’ in eastern Congo. Jewelers have started to work on this issue, but it’s time for them to step up and establish mine-to-market projects from Congo like the Motorola Solutions for Hope initiative. Combined with government action, this would have a substantial positive impact for people on the ground in Congo.”  

The video stresses that consumer demand and investment from the jewelry industry is one part of a multi-faceted solution. Other key steps by governments should include sanctions on gold smugglers and aid to help formalize Congo’s gold trade.

View and embed the video: “Conflict Gold 101

View or download infographic mapping out conflict gold’s six-step process: http://enoughproject.org/files/conflict-gold-infographic.png

Enough is a project of the Center for American Progress to end genocide and crimes against humanity. Founded in 2007, the Enough Project focuses on crises in Sudan, eastern Congo, and areas of Africa affected by the Lord’s Resistance Army. Enough’s strategy papers and briefings provide sharp field analysis and targeted policy recommendations based on a“3P” crisis response strategy: promoting durable peace, providing civilian protection, and punishing perpetrators of atrocities. Enough works with concerned citizens, advocates, and policy makers to prevent, mitigate, and resolve these crises. For more information, please visit www.enoughproject.org.  

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