Media Advisories

Central African Republic Facing Threat of Partition

Date: 
Feb 15, 2017

 

Pour la version francaise, voir ci-dessous

Leaders of the Séléka and other armed groups, seeking political and economic spoils of power, stoke sectarian violence, threaten to break apart country

A new policy brief published today by the Enough Project concludes that leaders of armed groups in the Central African Republic (CAR) are deliberately stoking sectarian violence and threats of a national break-up in an attempt to further personal and corrupt self- interests.

The report, “Dangerous Divisions: The Central African Republic faces the threat of secession,” highlights the immediate danger of partition, and recommends urgent steps to halt rising tensions, renewed armed conflict, and intercommunal divisions.

Nathalia Dukhanauthor of the brief and researcher at the Enough Project, said: “Far from the headlines, the people in the Central African Republic are again living through horror, as the leaders of factions of the Séléka and other armed groups deliberately stoke sectarian violence, including the perpetration of mass atrocities. Intercommunal tensions have been orchestrated by these militia leaders in order to legitimize self-serving calls for the segregation of communities that, while diverse, have historically lived in peaceful co-habitation.”

Brad Brooks-Rubin, Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: “With the international community focused elsewhere, or resigned to believe that the current government is capable of solving the country's crisis, we see the Central African Republic veering toward increased communal violence and division.”

The analysis, based on extensive interviews and research in CAR, finds leaders of armed groups, mainly four factions of the Séléka, are orchestrating acts of violence along ethnic and religious lines in order to strengthen their negotiating positions in a battle for the spoils of power in that country. The report depicts a dangerous reinforcing cycle, in which widespread violence drives threatened civilians to seek the protection of these armed leaders. Those armed group leaders consequently exploit those demands for protection in calling for the separation of groups along those same ethnic and religious lines.

Dukhan adds: “The international community must take urgent action to help turn off the spigot of political and economic rewards for corrupt commanders of political-military movements who are currently incentivized to pursue their divisive and destabilizing activities.”

Brooks-Rubin adds: “Our analysis demonstrates that the situation is dire and requires engagement that focuses on accountability and pressures that can meaningfully impact those who are now motivated to pursue conflict to achieve their goals. In order for the billions of dollars recently committed to the Central African Republic to deliver what donors expect, real attention must be paid to these root causes and the measures that can help address them.”

Recommendations for the international community and the CAR government:

  • Expand and strengthen the implementation of financial pressures, including sanctions, that target the interests and vulnerabilities of the armed groups as well as the businesses that support them, whether through targeted asset freezes or measures that inhibit investment in ventures benefitting armed groups.
     
  • Seek accountability for those who are most responsible for the atrocities and economic crimes, while implementing a process of disarmament that ultimately aims to reintegrate the combatants and the communities in a fair and equitable way.
     
  • Stop enabling the legitimacy of armed groups that use violence, particularly against civilians, to seize power and/or wealth, and recognize that the system of violence does not necessarily reflect the aspirations of the combatants or of the populations who live in the areas controlled by armed groups.
     
  • Support initiatives that restore social cohesion, foster economic interdependence, and help communities heal.
     
  • Develop inclusive policies, particularly for Muslims, and address the urgent need to decentralize power as well as promote local democracy and local development.

Link to full report: http://eno.ug/2knOjX1

Link to the report in French: http://eno.ug/2kKdwXF 

Read more on the U.N. Panel of Experts recent findings on CAR:

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT

The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org

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La Républiques Centrafricaine face à des menaces de partition

Les leaders de la Séléka et d’autres groupes armés, motivés par l’obtention d’avantages politiques et économiques, instrumentalisent les violences sectaires et menacent de diviser la Centrafrique.

Un nouvel article publié aujourd’hui par l’Enough Project révèle que les leaders des groupes armés en République Centrafricaine instrumentalisent les violences sectaires et menacent l’unité nationale pour des intérêts politiques et financiers personnels.

L’article, “Territoire Morcelé, Communautés Divisées : La République Centrafricaine face à des menaces sécessionnistes” met en lumière un danger immédiat de partition du pays et recommande des mesures urgentes pour mettre fin à l’escalade des violences, aux luttes armées et aux divisions intercommunautaires.

Nathalia Dukhan, l’auteur de l’article et chercheur à l’Enough Project, affirme que : “Loin de l’attention médiatique, les citoyens de la République Centrafricaine vivent de nouveau l’horreur. Depuis la fin de l’année 2016, les luttes fratricides entre groupes armés entrainent des massacres de grande ampleur. Ces chefs de guerre n’hésitent pas à alimenter les violences sectaires pour défendre des intérêts politiques et économiques particuliers. La partition de facto de la Centrafrique est aujourd’hui justifiée par les tensions inter-ethniques et devant le statut quo de la communauté internationale, une branche de la coalition Séléka en vient même à brandir des menaces sécessionnistes.

Brad Brooks-Rubin, directeur des campagnes de l’Enough Project, affirme que : “Avec l’attention de la communauté internationale focalisée ailleurs, ou résignée à croire que le gouvernement actuel est en mesure de résoudre la crise du pays, nous observons pourtant une recrudescence des violences et des divisions intercommunautaires en République Centrafricaine.”

L’analyse, basée sur des entretiens et une recherche réalisés en Centrafrique, révèle que les leaders des groupes armés, particulièrement les quatre factions issues de la coalition Séléka, instrumentalisent des actes de violence sur base ethnique et religieuse pour renforcer leurs positions de négociations dans une quête du pouvoir. Le rapport décrit une dynamique dangereuse dans laquelle les violences généralisées amènent les civils, exposés à des menaces, à rechercher la protection des leaders des groupes armés. Par conséquent, les leaders de groupes armés exploitent ce besoin de protection en justifiant une nécessaire séparation avec les autres groupes sur base ethnique et religieuse.

Dukhan poursuit : “La communauté internationale doit réagir et prendre des mesures urgentes qui viseraient à mettre fin à la croyance générale qu’être commandant d’un mouvement politico-militaire garantit des récompenses, des postes politiques prestigieux et l’enrichissement individuel”.

Brooks-Rubin poursuit : “Notre analyse démontre que la situation est grave et elle requiert un engagement significatif en faveur de plus de responsabilité ainsi que des mécanismes de pression qui peuvent avoir un impact significatif sur ceux qui perpétuent l’instabilité pour défendre des intérêts privés. Afin que les milliards promis à la Centrafrique par la communauté des bailleurs de fonds permettent d’aider à atteindre les objectifs souhaités, il est nécessaire d’accorder une attention véritable aux causes profondes du conflit et de mettre en œuvre des mesures qui pourraient permettre d’apporter des solutions durables.”

Recommandations à la communauté internationale et au gouvernement de RCA :

  • Etendre davantage et renforcer la mise en œuvre effective d’instruments financiers, y compris les sanctions, qui visent les intérêts et la vulnérabilité des groupes armés ainsi que les compagnies qui les soutiennent, que ce soit par le gel des avoirs ciblés ou par des mesures qui empêchent les investissements soutenant les groupes armés.
     
  • Amener les responsables des atrocités et des crimes économiques devant la justice, tout en mettant en œuvre un processus de désarmement qui vise à réintégrer les combattants et les communautés de manière juste et équitable.
     
  • Cesser d’encourager ou permettre une légitimité quelconque des leaders des groupes armés qui utilisent la violence, en particulier contre les civils, pour s'emparer du pouvoir et / ou des richesses nationales et reconnaître que le système de violence ne reflète pas nécessairement les aspirations des combattants ou des populations qui vivent dans les zones contrôlées par les groupes armés.
     
  • Soutenir les initiatives œuvrant en faveur de la cohésion sociale, d’une interdépendance économique accrue des communautés, en vue de faciliter une réconciliation.
     
  • Développer des politiques inclusives, notamment en intégrant les ethnies de confession musulmane et répondre à la nécessité urgente de décentraliser le pouvoir, de promouvoir la démocratie locale et le développement local.

Lien du rapport complet: http://eno.ug/2kKdwXF

Lien du rapport en anglais: http://eno.ug/2knOjX1

Pour en savoir plus sur les récentes enquêtes du Panel d’Experts sur la RCA :

Pour toute requête médias ou demande d’entretien, veuillez contacter : Greg Hittelman, directeur de la Communication, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

À propos de ENOUGH PROJECT

Organisme de promotion des politiques de prévention des atrocités, Enough Project cherche à mobiliser les efforts en faveur de la paix et de la justice en Afrique en s’efforçant d’appliquer des sanctions contre les auteurs et les complices de génocides et d’autres atrocités de masse. Enough lutte contre les régimes kleptocrates violents et les groupes armés portant atteinte aux droits, alimentés par la grande corruption, la criminalité et la terreur à l’échelle internationale, ainsi que le pillage et le trafic de minéraux, d’ivoire, de diamants et d’autres ressources naturelles. Enough mène des enquêtes de terrain dans les zones de conflits, élabore des recommandations politiques en faveur desquelles il plaide, soutient des mouvements sociaux dans les pays touchés par des conflits et organise des campagnes publiques. Pour en savoir plus et nous rejoindre, rendez-vous sur www.EnoughProject.org.

Massachusetts Governor to Sign Landmark “Conflict-Free” Procurement Law

Date: 
Feb 1, 2017

 

New State Procurement Policy to Support a Conflict-Free Minerals Trade and Peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Human rights activists and policymakers are celebrating as Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker will sign a statewide “conflict-free” legislation in an official ceremony tomorrow afternoon. Massachusetts now joins Maryland and California as the third state in the country to have passed legislation supporting a conflict-free minerals trade and peace in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as well as 25 schools and six cities around the world which have implemented similar policies.

The law requires the state to conduct an assessment and issue a report on its procurement policies with regard to conflict minerals from Congo. The report findings will be used to encourage the implementation of procurement mechanisms that support conflict-free sourcing from Congo.

The legislation, Resolve S.2463, was championed by Boston Mayor and former State Representative Marty Walsh as well as Governor Baker. It is a result of over six years of campaigning by local activists and Congolese diaspora members led by Congo Action Now, and student activists participating in the Enough Project’s Conflict-Free Campus Initiative

This process is aligned with the goals of the national conflict minerals legislation, Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which requires publicly traded companies to report annually on their conflict minerals supply chain due diligence. 

Annie Callaway, Advocacy & Activist Manager for the Enough Project, said: "Resolve S.2463 is a result of over six years of persistence from students, activists, and Congolese diaspora in Massachusetts' conflict-free movement. This unprecedented collaboration will not go unnoticed in the broader push for responsible sourcing from Congo. By committing to evaluate its own procurement practices, Massachusetts joins the growing number of individuals and institutions voicing demand for conflict-free products."

Stephen R. Hilbert, Foreign Policy Advisor for Africa and Global Development, Office of International Justice and Peace at the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, said: “The Congo Conflict Minerals Act, Section 1502 of the Dodd-Frank bill has to be one our country’s greatest “Good Samaritan” acts in recent history. It was the culmination of bipartisan work to acknowledge the effects that illicit mineral mining had on the deadliest conflict in our world since World War II. Since 2008 the Catholic Church in the Congo highlighted how illicit mineral mining fueled militias and conflict. The Church in Congo worked with the Church in the United States to help promote legislation that would help end the suffering. The Church met with the Securities and Exchange Commission to ensure rules were rigorous and transparent and even testified in 2013 to defend the bill from Congressional attempts to repeal it. This bill has even deeper meaning for the Congolese people. Going all the way back to 1885, the Congolese people have watched foreign powers exploit their country for its mineral and natural wealth while the people lived in poverty. Section 1502 breaks that 115 year-long brutal legacy. The United States showed great leadership in passing and enforcing Section 1502 and should be proud of its accomplishment.”

Sasha LezhnevAssociate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: "Massachusetts took a major step forward in the fight against deadly conflict minerals today. Taxpayer money should not be used to subsidize companies that are unable to weed conflict minerals out of their supply chains. This resolution is timely and will help drive further industry reform."

Julie Kabukanyi, Congolese diaspora community leader and member of Congo Action Now, said: "The children of Congo are dying for demanding their rights to have democratically elected leaders. Even though they are denied sound education, health care, employment, they know deep down that a democratically elected government will respond to the aspirations of the long-suffering Congolese people. Resolve S.2463 indicates that the state of Massachusetts cares about the Congolese people, and is willing to work to support their fight for peace."

The UN Group of Experts stated as recently as 2010 that “in the Kivu provinces, almost every mining deposit [was] controlled by a military group.” In a major change and thanks to the tireless efforts of activists, as of October 2016, 79 percent of miners working at tin, tantalum, and tungsten mines in eastern Congo surveyed by the International Peace Information Service were not working under the presence of armed actors.

For details on “S.2463: Resolve examining Commonwealth procurement policies relative to Congo conflict minerals” seehttps://malegislature.gov/Laws/SessionLaws/Resolves/2016/Chapter5

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact:
Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

About THE CONFLICT-FREE CITIES and CONFLICT-FREE CAMPUS INITIATIVE
Initiatives of the Enough Project’s “Raise Hope for Congo” campaign, the Conflict-Free Cities and Conflict-Free Campus Initiative (CFCI) draw on the power of student leadership and activism to help support peace in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. By encouraging university officials, local governments, and other stakeholders - large purchasers of electronics and powerful spokespersons - to commit to measures that pressure electronics companies to responsibly invest in the minerals sector, consumers are voicing the demand for conflict-free products from Congo. Comprehensive reform is needed in Congo for sustainable peace - now is the time is for activists to lead the conflict-free movement. Join us: www.raisehopeforcongo.org/campus or www.raisehopeforcongo.org/content/conflict-free-cities

New Report Exposes Massive Corruption in South Sudan’s Army

Date: 
Jan 26, 2017

A new report, “Weapons of Mass Corruption: How corruption in South Sudan’s military undermines the world’s newest country,” published today by the Enough Project, details massive corruption within South Sudan’s army. Corrupt activities within the army detailed in the report include procurement fraud, irregular spending unchecked by civilian authority, and bloated troop rosters featuring thousands of “ghost” (non-existent) soldiers.

Brian Adeba, Associate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: “The effect of corruption in proliferating insecurity in South Sudan cannot be underestimated. The country’s politicians can only begin to realize the fruits of security for their citizens if they tackle the graft in the army.”

The report, fifth in the Enough Project’s “The Political Economy of African Wars” series, describes how despite widespread suffering in South Sudan, including famine-like conditions and the severe economic hardships South Sudanese people experience, massive amounts of the country’s dwindling funds go to the South Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), where they are diverted and misspent without accountability.

Jacinth Planer, report editor and Editor/Researcher at the Enough Project, said: “On paper, South Sudan’s legal and institutional frameworks enshrine civilian, not military leadership. The SPLA is meant to protect, defend, and hold itself accountable to the South Sudanese people. But the destructive system and practices that have developed now instead work against these purposes, and the South Sudanese people who face great personal risks have paid the highest price. The international community should steadfastly support the South Sudanese people and especially those who try to uphold the institutions that are being undermined today.”

The report finds that within what Enough identifies as a violent kleptocratic system in South Sudan, a lack of financial oversight over military expenditure, combined with heavy influence by political appointees, has created opportunities for mass corruption in the SPLA.

John PrendergastFounding Director at the Enough Project, said: “There is no accountability for the looting of state resources in South Sudan, especially with military spending. The missing piece of an effective international response is the creation of leverage to shift the calculations of these violent kleptocrats from war to peace, from mass corruption—including in the military—to good governance and accountability in spending. The incentives that reward violence and theft must be changed. The international community needs to help make war costlier than peace for the leaders and create targeted and personal consequences for corrupt war-mongers.” 

Selected report excerpts:

  • Lack of financial oversight for and within the SPLA constitutes a major organizational weakness and creates opportunities for corruption. This deficiency does not stem primarily from a poor legal framework, underdeveloped institutional capacity, or lack of knowledge about international best practice in financial oversight. The deficiency stems from willful, systematic obstruction of financial oversight.
  • An army of approximately 230,000 on paper, with a large share of ghost soldiers has little practical purpose. A payroll for a ghost army of that size, however, can have a very important purpose: providing a large opaque budget line to the military. This budget line has not successfully been subjected to rigorous public oversight and auditing.
  • Corruption in South Sudan has shifted from being an integrated and self-sustaining system to a disintegrative and self-destructing system in the wake of economic collapse.
     
  • In a nation where resources are scarce and contested, and many people are unable to provide for their basic needs, political appointments in South Sudan empower certain individuals to access public accounts and manage scarce financial resources. There are few effective institutional mechanisms to check the use of public office and public financial resources for individual gain.
     
  • RECOMMENDATIONS: The international community, with U.S. leadership, has the opportunity to create consequences for these predatory actors that harm South Sudanese people. Consequences should include:
     
    • a new U.S. executive order on South Sudan that makes public corruption and misappropriation of state assets grounds for sanctions, as current U.S. sanctions programs do for Belarus, Burma, Libya, Syria, Zimbabwe, Venezuela, and Ukraine/Russia.
       
    • U.S. lawmakers should also leverage U.S. anti-money laundering authorities by having the U.S. Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) and other financial intelligence units issue advisories and investigative requests related to South Sudanese military transactions.

Link to full report: http://eno.ug/2iGE9Qw

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT

The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org

Enough Project Calls for Immediate Release of South Sudanese Citizens Aggrey Idri and Dong Samuel

Date: 
Jan 24, 2017

 

Washington, DC – The Enough Project joins Human Rights Watch and other international voices advocating strongly for the immediate release of two South Sudanese citizens and political opposition figures, Aggrey Idri and Dong Samuel.

According to their lawyer, Aggrey Idri and Dong Samuel are being detained by Kenyan authorities in the Nairobi area. They are subject to a deportation order, and if they are extradited from Nairobi to Juba as ordered, their lives and safety are at immediate risk.

Enough calls on President Uhuru Kenyatta and the Kenyan security authorities to immediately release both men and nullify the deportation orders they face.

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606, gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org

Event & livestream tomorrow: DR Congo's CENCO Agreement: A Foundation for Real Political Transition?

Date: 
Jan 17, 2017

 

On Wednesday, January 18, the Enough Project and the Atlantic Council will host, “DRC's CENCO Agreement: A Foundation for Real Political Transition?” in Washington, DC.

Speakers will discuss the ongoing political situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the wake of the December 31 deal between the country’s political opposition and President Joseph Kabila, who failed to respect the constitutionally-mandated end of his term in office on December 19. The discussion will provide an update on the unfolding situation in the country and how the US and Europe can best support the political transition.

For media unable to attend, the presentation will be simulcast on livestream video here. For event details, click here.

Speakers:

  • Dr. Pierre Englebert, H. Russell Smith Professor of International Relations and Professor of African Politics, Pomona College
  • Sasha Lezhnev, Associate Director of Policy, Enough Project
  • Dr. J. Peter Pham, Director, Africa Center; Vice President, Atlantic Council

Moderated by:

  • Bronwyn Bruton, Director, Africa Center Research and Programs; Deputy Director, Africa Center, Atlantic Council

DATE/TIME: Wednesday, January 18, 2017 | 10:00 a.m. EST

LIVESTREAM: Click here to watch the livestream.

LOCATION: Atlantic Council, 1030 15th Street NW, 12th Floor, Washington, DC 20005

FOR MEDIA: For media planning to attend the event in person, please email: press@enoughproject.org. For media inquiries and interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT

The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

Congo President Kabila Fails to Agree to Democratic Transition

Date: 
Dec 19, 2016

 

Grave concerns about worsening crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as Kabila fails to hold elections or come to agreement with opposition. He suddenly names new government, and his last legal term ended at midnight Kinshasa time. 

December 19, 2016 - 6:45pm EST (Washington, DC) –

The Democratic Republic of Congo’s President Joseph Kabila has failed to agree to a democratic transition with the country's political opposition. After the Congolese government failed to hold scheduled elections on November 19, tonight at midnight marks the end of Kabila's second and last legally sanctioned term as the country's president, according to Congo's constitution. Five minutes before midnight on national television, Kabila announced a new government under Prime Minister Samy Badibanga, despite the lack of a political agreement with the opposition.

Civil society groups have organized numerous public demonstrations demanding President Kabila respect the constitution and help prepare for the democratic election of his successor. Many of those demonstrations have been met with brutal crackdowns by police and military forces. The government has blocked nearly all access to social media today, and at least two prominent activists are missing. There have been over 40 arrests reported today. 

Enough Project experts are available for comment and analysis.

Holly Dranginis, Senior Policy Analyst at the Enough Project, said: “The Congolese people have already endured untold repression in the weeks and months leading up to this flashpoint, especially those calling for a democratic transition of power. Today marks Kabila’s admission into a dangerous category of leaders who gain power by force, not by democratic process or respect for their people. Last week, the EU and US sent a strong message of warning by issuing sanctions, but today there is repression in the streets. The international community needs to enforce sanctions with vigilance and rigor, and above all, support the Congolese people as they fight for their right to vote in a new leader.”

Sasha Lezhnev, Associate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: "Today is a turning point for Congo. Without a deal for a democratic transition, President Kabila should announce that he will not run in the next elections. That would help calm the major tensions. If not, the U.S. and Europe should ratchet up the financial pressure through sanctions on high-level advisors and anti-money laundering actions."

John Prendergast, Founding Director at the Enough Project, said: "Clearly, President Kabila is not willing to relinquish power, and appears to be insisting on running for a third term whenever elections actually are held. The kleptocracy he has overseen is too lucrative to let go of, and so he will try to stay, even if it means the country catches fire around him."

Since as early as January 2015, Congolese people have taken to the streets and launched other advocacy efforts to express their support for a peaceful, timely presidential transition. Crackdowns on peaceful protesters, opposition leaders, and youth activists related to elections have been consistent since January 2015 when 36 were killed in a demonstration in Kinshasa and four in Goma. More recently, the week of September 19th44 people were killed and dozens arrested.

Last week, in an effort to promote restraint by security forces and show support for democracy, the European Union imposed targeted sanctions on seven individuals, for “holding positions of authority…over the Congolese security forces which have exercised a disproportionate use of force.” The United States also placed sanctions on two high-level Congolese officials last week, Evariste Boshab and Kalev Mutondo, bringing the total to five this year. 

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact:
Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

NY Times Reports Suspicious Congo Transactions of $95.7 million; Treasury Department Should Alert Banks

Date: 
Dec 18, 2016
Author: 
Enough Team

Enough Project calls on the U.S. Treasury Department, European governments to work with financial institutions to address news reports of suspicious transactions in the Democratic Republic of Congo 

In an article published today, the New York Times reported that some senior officials in the Congolese government have been involved in a series of suspicious bank transfers. The article also discusses $95.7 million in irregular “tax advances” from the state-owned mining company Gécamines to the country’s central bank. Documents provided by the Times and verified by The Sentry show that these transactions were denominated in U.S. dollars. President Joseph Kabila appoints the directors of Gécamines. It also reported the suspicions voiced by several government officials that that family members of President Kabila have been involved in suspicious cash transactions. This news comes amidst a deteriorating political crisis in which elections have been postponed by 17 months and repression has risen against democratic protestors and the media. More details regarding these transactions are found in the New York Times story, which quotes a representative of the Enough Project.

Sasha Lezhnev, Associate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: “It appears from the Times’ reporting that the U.S. financial system may be being used by corrupt elites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The U.S. Treasury Department should employ the types of financial tools used to combat terrorism and nuclear proliferation to safeguard the U.S. financial system. A FinCEN advisory would make it much more difficult for corrupt officials to wire money through the international financial system.”

The transactions included an $8 million order for tax advances to be paid in cash from the mining company to a bank. According to documents viewed by The Sentry, this bank was BGFI DRC. According to Bloomberg, BGFI DRC is controlled by the president’s brother and sister. If, as it appears, that the transactions described in the article were conducted in U.S. dollars, some of them therefore may have passed through the U.S. financial system. This would provide the U.S. government with an opportunity to thoroughly examine the transactions that took place and take action to prevent abuse of the U.S. financial system.

In the Times article, Lambert Mende, Congo’s Minister of Communications, asserted that Kabila was “not a robber, not at all,” and added, “He has no account in Europe or the USA. He doesn’t have a single apartment outside of Congo. This is all storytelling.”

The transactions reported by the Times have taken place against a backdrop of large-scale poverty in Congo, as the economic situation continues to deteriorate for average Congolese citizens. The Congolese Franc has lost 27% of its value in 2016; inflation has increased to nearly 6%; Central Bank foreign exchange reserves have decreased by nearly half (45%) over the past two years; and the price of some foodstuffs is up as high as 80%. The Congolese government is also slashing state services, with budget cuts of 22% and a further 14%, including a 90% cut in spending on healthcare equipment.   

The Congolese government has also delayed elections scheduled by the constitution for November 19, 2016, until April 2018, and its security forces killed at least 56 protestors in pro-democracy rallies in September. The government has also cracked down on independent media, cutting the signals of Radio France International and UN-supported Radio Okapi and several others. President Kabila is supposed to hand over power on December 19, 2016, according to Congo’s constitution.

John Prendergast, Founding Director at the Enough Project, said: “While Congo’s elites continue to benefit and profit from a violent kleptocratic system and undermine democratic processes and institutions, the Congolese people are bearing the brunt. The United States and Europe should impose appropriate, higher-level targeted sanctions now in a last-ditch effort to prevent an escalation of violence ahead of December 19.”

Holly Dranginis, Senior Policy Analyst at the Enough Project, said: “The Times article is in line with our conclusion, based on our own analysis of the situation, that, instead of using Congo’s vast resource wealth to provide social services, fund elections, and improve the livelihoods of citizens, the Kabila regime has pursuedtwo narrow, self-serving objectives: lining the pockets of the president’s inner circle and retaining power at all costs.”

The Enough Project recommends that the United States and Europe take four main policy steps in order to to negotiate a successful democratic transition. That process should include the holding of elections in 2017, Kabila’s handing over of power, and the dropping of charges against democracy activists and opposition candidates.

  1. Anti-money laundering measures: 314(a). The U.S. Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) should begin to assess suspicious financial activities connected to the Kabila regime and key elites by issuing a request to financial institutions pursuant to Section 314(a) of the Patriot Act. Financial intelligence units in Belgium, the UK, and France should use their authorities to take similar steps. The request would demand vigilance and lead to more vigorous reporting of suspicious activity regarding the possible flow of the proceeds of corruption through the U.S. financial system. This would not cut off the general Congolese population from the banking system but rather be directed against a specific list of individuals and entities.

  2. Enhanced and robustly enforced targeted sanctions on higher-level decision makers found responsible for violence and corruption. The U.S. should designate a short list of high-level financial, political, and military advisors with strong influence on President Kabila and who have significant financial assets that can be impacted by a designation. The designation of three Congolese generals during the course of 2016 has been a good start but will prove insufficient to change the DRC government’s stance on elections unless higher-level targets are designated. Congolese civil society supports additional designations.

  3. Direct engagement with correspondent banks. Treasury and State Department officials should meet with the U.S. and European correspondent banks that do significant business with banks in Congo that may have facilitated suspicious money transfers, as well as with key regional bodies. By raising concerns with individual banks, the correspondent banks could cut off from the international financial system the entities in Congo posing the highest risks.

  4. Improving transparency: Pressing for an audit of the state-owned copper and cobalt company. The United States, Belgium, the United Kingdom, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region (ICGLR), and mining companies investing in Congo should strongly encourage President Kabila to require that the state-owned company Gécamines should publish detailed annual financial statements and have an independent, third-party audit conducted and published.

 

As Congo Heads into Crucial Week, U.S., E.U., Place Sanctions on More High-Level Officials

Date: 
Dec 12, 2016

 

Amidst escalating election crisis in the Democratic Republic of Congo, US, EU sanctions signal “enough is enough”

Washington, DC -- Today, the U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) placed Évariste Boshab, Vice Prime Minister and Interior Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Kalev Mutond, Director of the country’s National Intelligence Agency (ANR) on its Specially Designated Nationals (SDN) List. Further, the European Union placed targeted sanctions against seven senior security officers in Congo. The ANR has been known for using calculated intimidation tactics against civilians and committing serious human rights abuses, including arbitrary arrests and disappearances. Boshab is a key member of President Joseph Kabila's inner circle. 

Enough Project experts are available for comment and analysis.

Sasha Lezhnev, Associate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: “The sanctions are a critical step to protect human rights and prevent wider violence in Congo. The U.S. Treasury Department should follow suit by enacting anti-money laundering measures to help stop corrupt transactions from taking place in U.S. dollars.”

Holly Dranginis, Senior Policy Analyst at the Enough Project, said: “The United States is ratcheting up the pressure ahead of a flashpoint on December 19th, when Kabila is supposed to step down. This next round of US sanctions says 'enough is enough' to individuals in the government who have committed abuses with impunity for far too long. Instead of waiting for the crisis to explode or waiting for others to act, the US is using prevention strategies. It's a show of support for thousands of people in Congo who are putting their lives on the line to demand their right to a new elected leader.”

John Prendergast, Founding Director at the Enough Project, said: “Now is a crucial time to prevent violence in Congo. Today's sanctions announcements are key, but the financial pressure should be further escalated if the Congolese government does not ensure an effective democratic transition ahead of December 19."

According to the country's constitution, President Kabila is due to step down on December 19. However, the government-led electoral commission announced that the elections will be delayed, potentially until 2018. Congolese civilians have taken to streets demanding President Kabila step down and hold elections, citing sanctions in particular as a tool the international community can use to support democracy and mitigate violence.

Today's measure makes five OFAC designations in total on high-level Congolese officials this year. In July, the Treasury Department sanctioned General Célestin Kanyama, the Police Commissioner of Kinshasa and in late September, it sanctioned General Gabriel Amisi Kumba, aka "Tango Fort," head of the First National Defense Zone and Major General John Numbi Banza Tambo, former Inspector General of the National Police. 

Earlier today, the EU also imposed sanctions on seven high-level Congolese officials including: General Célestin Kanyama, General Gabriel Amisi, Major General John Numbi Banza Tambo, Ilunga Kampete, Commander of the Republican Guard; Ferdinand Ilunga Luyoyo, Commander of the Anti-Riot Unit of the National Police; Roger Kibelisa, Chief of Internal Security of the ANR; and Delphin Kaimbi, Chief of Military Intelligence.

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact:
Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

NGO Coalition Calls for Sanctions on Senior DR Congo Officials

Date: 
Dec 9, 2016

Washington, DC – The Enough Project along with a coalition of 72 Congolese and 14 international human rights organizations have called on the European Union and the United States to expand targeted sanctions against those most responsible for recent violent repression and other serious human rights violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Sasha Lezhnev, Associate Director of Policy at the Enough Project, said: "If the EU and US act now, they can help prevent widespread violence in Congo. They have leverage, as Congolese officials use US dollars and Euros to conduct suspicious transactions, and it is now time to use that leverage to prevent atrocities and promote democracy." 

Please see joint press release and the full list of signatories below.

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

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EU/US: Sanction Senior DR Congo Officials
Urgent Action Needed to Deter Large-Scale Violence, Repression 

(Kinshasa, December 9, 2016) – The European Union and United States should expand targeted sanctions against those most responsible for recent violent repression and other serious human rights violations in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a coalition of 72 Congolese and 15 international human rights organizations said today. 

Ten days before the December 19, 2016, deadline marking the end of President Joseph Kabila’s constitutionally mandated two-term limit, he still has not made any clear commitment on when or even if he will step down. At the same time, government repression against pro-democracy activists, the political opposition, largely peaceful protesters, and the media has intensified at an alarming rate.

“Imposing targeted sanctions on senior officials, especially before December 19, could help walk Congo back from the brink and deter further violent repression,” said Me Georges Kapiamba, president of the Congolese Association for Access to Justice (ACAJ). “Such action would show that with each passing day, the consequences for the government will be greater.” 

Opposition leaders and pro-democracy activists have called for Congolese to take to the streets if President Kabila stays in office beyond his mandate. Past protests suggest that they will be met by security forces quick to use excessive and lethal force. There are risks that political leaders could mobilize the dozens of armed groups active in eastern Congo for political ends, or that the country’s brittle security forces could fracture if Kabila relies on force to stay in power. This raises concerns that the country could descend into further repression or widespread violence and chaos, with potentially volatile repercussions across the region.

Earlier targeted sanctions imposed by the US on three security force officers at the forefront of violence against protesters had a notable deterrent effect and rattled those implicated, the organizations said. The US should impose targeted sanctions against more senior level officials. 

In October, the EU Foreign Ministers stated that the EU would “use all means at its disposal” against individuals responsible for serious human rights violations, who promote violence, or who “obstruct a consensual and peaceful solution to the crisis.” In November, the European Parliament passed a resolution calling on the EU to urgently implement targeted sanctions. The EU is due to discuss Congo and possibly move forward with targeted sanctions during its next Foreign Affairs Council meeting on December 12.

Such targeted sanctions could include travel bans, asset freezes, and the blocking of bank accounts and financial transactions linked to the individuals.

“President Kabila and Congolese officials need to be sent a strong message that violating the rights of the Congolese people is costly for those responsible,” said Ida Sawyer, senior Africa researcher at Human Rights Watch. “Acting now to help prevent the situation in Congo from spiraling out of control will be critical to stability, the rule of law, and respect for fundamental human rights in Congo and throughout the region.”

For more information, please contact:
In Brussels, for Human Rights Watch, Ida Sawyer (English, French): +1-917-213-0939 (mobile); or +243-99-86-75-565 (mobile); or sawyeri@hrw.org. Twitter: @ida_sawyer
In Kinshasa, for the Congolese Association for Access to Justice (ACAJ), Me Georges Kapiamba (French): +243-814043641; or kapiambag2@gmail.com. Twitter: @kapiambaGeorges
For FIDH and its member organizations in the DRC: presse@fidh.org  

In Brussels, for EurAc, Julie Capoulade, (English, French): +32-499-81-01-77 (mobile); or julie.capoulade@eurac-network.org. Twitter: @JulieCapoulade
In Washington, DC, for the Enough Project, Greg Hittelman (English): +1-310-717-0606; or gh@enoughproject.org.

Signatories:

International organizations

  1. Agir Ensemble pour les Droits de l'Homme (AEDH)
  2. Ecumenical Network Central Africa (OENZ)
  3. The Enough Project
  4. European Network for Central Africa (EurAc)
  5. Fédération internationale de l’Action des chrétiens pour l’abolition de la torture (FIACAT)
  6. Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l’Homme (FIDH)
  7. Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect
  8. Global Witness
  9. Human Rights Watch
  10. Never Again Coalition
  11. PAX
  12. Protection International
  13. Reporters sans Frontières/Reporters Without Borders
  14. Save the Congo
  15. World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT)

Congolese organizations

  1. Action Chrétienne Contre la Torture (ACAT) – RDC
  2. Action d’Aide aux Survivants de la Torture (AAST/Relève)
  3. Action de Solidarité de Femmes pour la Femme et l’Enfant (ASOFFE) 
  4. Action pour la Bienveillance Humanitaire (AB/ Humanitaire)
  5. Action pour la Justice et le Développement (AJD)
  6. Action pour la Paix et la Protection de l'Enfant (APPE)
  7. Action pour la Protection des Droits Humains et de Développement Communautaire (APDHUD)
  8. Agir pour la Reconstruction de notre Espace et pour la Convivialité (AGIREC)
  9. Agir Rapidement pour la Femme (ARF)
  10. Association africaine de défense des droits de l’Homme (ASADHO)
  11. Association Congolaise pour l’Accès à la Justice (ACAJ)
  12. Association de défense des Droits de la Femme (ADDF)
  13. Association des Femmes Juristes Congolaises (AFEJUCO)
  14. Association des Femmes pour le Développement Communautaire (AFEMDECO)
  15. Association des Femmes pour le Développement Endogène Mboko/Fizi (AFDEM) 
  16. Association des Jeunes pour la Protection de l’Environnement Fizi (AJPEF)
  17. Association des Jeunes pour le Développement Intégral de Kalundu/Uvira (AJEDIK)
  18. Association pour le Développement des Initiatives Paysannes (ASSODIP)
  19. Association pour le Développement Intégral du Haut Plateau de Fizi (ADIPF)
  20. Association pour les Droits Humanitaires (ADH)
  21. Bureau de Promotion Socioculturelle (BUPSOC)
  22. Centre de Promotion Socio-Sanitaire (CEPROSSAN)
  23. Centre de Rééducation pour l’Enfance Délinquance et Défavorisée (CREDD)      
  24. Centre d'Observation des Droits de l'Homme et d'Assistance Sociale (CODHAS)
  25. Centre Indépendant de Recherches et d’Études Stratégiques au Kivu (CIRESKI)
  26. Centre International de Promotion et de Développement et des Droits de l'Homme (CEIPEDHO)
  27. Cercle international pour la Défense des Droits de l’Homme, la Paix et l’Environnement (CIDDHOPE)
  28. Cercle National de Réflexion sur la Jeunesse (CNRJ RDC)
  29. Comité de Coordination des Actions de Paix (CCAP)
  30. Commission Internationale en Formation des Droits de l’Homme (CIFDH)
  31. Convention pour le Respect des Droits de l’Homme (CRDH)
  32. Congrès pour le Renouveau Syndical (CORES)
  33. Debout Fille de Fizi (DFF)
  34. Femme en Danger (FED)
  35. Femme et Enfant en Détresse (SOS FED)
  36. Femme pour le Développement des Mutuelles de Solidarités à Fizi (FDMUSOF)
  37. Femme qui en Soulève une Autre (FESA)
  38. Femmes Engagées pour la Promotion de la Santé Intégrale (FEPSI)
  39. Femmes Juristes pour la défense des Droits de la Femme (FJDF)
  40. Fraternité des Prisons (FP)
  41. Genre pour l’Appui au Développement (GAD)
  42. Great Lakes Human Rights Program (GLHRP)
  43. Groupe d’Action Non-Violente Évangélique (GANVE)
  44. Groupe d’Associations de Défense des Droits de l’Homme et de Paix (GADHOP)
  45. Groupe Lotus (GL)
  46. Institut Africain de Formation en Droits Humains (INAFDH)
  47. Juriste en Action (JURAC)
  48. JUSTICIA Asbl
  49. Ligue contre la Fraude et la Corruption (LICOF)
  50. Ligue des Activistes des Droits de l'Homme (LADHO)
  51. Ligue des électeurs (LE)
  52. Ligue pour la Défense et la Vulgarisation des Droits Humains (LDVDH)
  53. Mama Tupendane (MT)
  54. Mama Tushirikiane (MATU)
  55. Maniema Libertés (MALI)
  56. Maniema Tuende Mbele (MTM)
  57. Mobilisation, Encadrement Écologie et Défense des Droits Humains par les Amis des Familles Démunies (MEEDAF)
  58. Œuvre Chrétienne pour la Femme (OCF)
  59. Organisation Communautaire pour la Conservation de la Nature (OCCN)
  60. Organisation de Paix pour les Opportunités et le Développement (OPOD)
  61. Organisation pour la Promotion et Protection des Droits Humains (OPPDH)
  62. Pax Christ Butembo   
  63. Psychologues sans Frontières (PSF)
  64. Relance pour la Fille de Sion (RFS)
  65. Réseau des Activistes des Droits Humains de Fizi
  66. Réseau des Communicateurs Humanitaires (RCH)
  67. Réseau des Parajuristes du Maniema (REPAJUMA)    
  68. Réseaux de Femmes pour le Développement de Jeunes d’Itombwe (RFDJI)
  69. Service Par, Pour et Avec les Femmes (SEPPAF)
  70. Solidarité des Associations Féminines pour les Droits de Femmes et de l’Enfant (SAFDF)
  71. Solidarité des Hommes pour la Protection et la Promotion des Femmes (SHPF)
  72. Wamama Tusimame (WATU)

“A Groundbreaking Achievement”: Congress Passes “Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act”

Date: 
Dec 8, 2016

 

Enough Project applauds historic, bipartisan effort to combat corruption, protect journalists, whistleblowers, and human rights defenders around the world

Washington, DC – Today, the United States Congress passed historic legislation empowering the U.S. government with the authority to place sanctions on corrupt public officials across the world who misappropriate state assets as well as anyone who attacks journalists and human rights defenders. 

The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2017 passed in the Senate today, following passage in the House of Representatives last Friday. The NDAA includes a provision on human rights sanctions known as the “Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act.” Once signed into law, Global Magnitsky gives the President standing authority to impose sanctions on non-U.S. citizens guilty of corruption or gross human rights violations perpetrated against whistleblowers. Global Magnitsky also enhances congressional involvement in the designation of individuals to be investigated for human rights violations, and helps to ensure that U.S. financial institutions are not complicit in supporting those profiting off of atrocities.

The Global Magnitsky Act brings a unique focus to corruption and the illicit gain acquired through acts of corruption and especially with regard to those in government positions, those who are complicit in corrupt acts, and those who facilitate or transfer the proceeds of corruption to foreign jurisdictions.

The NDAA now heads to President Obama’s desk to be signed into law. 

Ian Schwab, Director of Advocacy and Impact Strategy at the Enough Project, said: “Passage of the Global Magnitsky Act demonstrates what is possible when members of both parties working together in the House and Senate identify a problem and put forward a constructive solution. Congress should use this legislation and the tools it provides to ensure that there are consequences for those leaders stealing from their own people and crushing dissent.”

J.R. Mailey, Senior Policy Analyst for Illicit Finance and Conflict at the Enough Project, said: “Journalists and civil society activists around the world are on the front lines of the fight against corruption, oppression, and human rights violations. This puts many courageous reporters and activists directly in harm's way, as many who seek to expose corruption or government abuses are subject to harassment, intimidation and violence. Such abuse continues, in part, because the officials responsible for attacks on civil society and the press believe they will suffer no consequences. The passage of the Global Magnitsky Act will help change the equation.”

Rachel Finn, Advocacy Manager at the Enough Project, said: “The Global Magnitsky Act is a groundbreaking achievement in the realm of atrocity prevention. Not only does it make explicit the critical nexus between corruption and human rights abuses around the globe, but this bipartisan initiative also establishes a foundational framework through which real action can be taken against perpetrators and enablers of some of the worst crimes known to humanity. We are grateful to the ongoing work of Senators Cardin (D-MD) and McCain (R-AZ), Representatives Smith (R-NJ) and McGovern (D-MA), and each chamber's Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees for their tireless efforts ensuring the U.S. Government has the tools necessary to focus on human rights and peace internationally.”

For media inquiries or interview requests, please contact: Greg Hittelman, Director of Communications, +1 310 717 0606gh@enoughproject.org.

About THE ENOUGH PROJECT
The Enough Project, an atrocity prevention policy group, seeks to build leverage for peace and justice in Africa by helping to create real consequences for the perpetrators and facilitators of genocide and other mass atrocities. Enough aims to counter rights-abusing armed groups and violent kleptocratic regimes that are fueled by grand corruption, transnational crime and terror, and the pillaging and trafficking of minerals, ivory, diamonds, and other natural resources. Enough conducts field research in conflict zones, develops and advocates for policy recommendations, supports social movements in affected countries, and mobilizes public campaigns. Learn more – and join us – at www.EnoughProject.org.

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